Gley

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gley

[glā]
(geology)
A sticky subsurface layer of clay in some waterlogged soils.

Gley

 

gleyed topsoil, the portion of the soil profile characterized by lack of structure, low porosity, and green, blue, dove-gray, or mixed dove-gray-red color. It is formed as a result of the gleying of soils, a complex set of processes predominantly microbiological and biochemical in nature, including reduction of mineral and organic substances with formation of unstable forms of oxides of iron, manganese, aluminum, and other elements accumulated in the soil; transformation of humic acids into fulvic acids; acidification of the soil reaction with entry into the absorbing complex of bivalent iron, hydrogen, and aluminum; destruction of alumosilicate minerals with neogenesis of clay minerals containing bivalent iron; and a number of other phenomena. It develops in various swamped and marshy soils in topsoils with difficult or no access to oxygen (under the influence of ground or surface waters). Gley exerts an adverse effect on the overwhelming majority of wild and cultivated plants. Reclamation of gleyed soils involves first of all drying them out—lowering the level of groundwater and eliminating excess surface waters. The term “gley” was first introduced into scientific literature by the Russian scientist G. N. Vysotskii (1905) and became international in soil science.

V. M. FRIDLAND

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A number of researchers (Mays, Caldwell, & Jackson, 1996; Moore & Glei, 1995; Resnicow, Braithwaite, & Kuo, 1997) have suggested that African Americans rely more heavily on spiritual and religious resources as coping mechanisms compared with White Americans.
A national study of college student compliance with contraception noted a similar statistic, with 37.7% of undergraduate students reporting a lack of protection at last intercourse (CDC, 1997) Research has also demonstrated that even women aged 18-24 years who do comply with contraceptive use tend to do so less consistently than women in older age groups (Glei, 1999).
Adolescents are less likely than adults to use contraception either effectively or consistently (Glei, 1999; Hogan & Kitagawa, 1985).
In developed countries such as Canada, the United States, Sweden, and Australia, the gradual trend toward earlier age of first intercourse that began in the 1950s and accelerated in the 1970s and 1980s (Kahn, Brindis, & Glei, 1999; Maticka-Tyndale et al., 2000) has shown some stabilization and even decline in the 1990s.
Low levels of parental supervision and support increase the risk for sexual behavior (Biglan et al., 1990; Walter, Vaughn, & Cohall, 1990), but a supportive family decreases the risk of initiating sexual activity at a young age (Moore, Miller, Morrison, & Glei, 1995).
GLEI, & CONNIE BLUMENTHAL, CHILD TRENDS, INC., BEGINNING TOO SOON: ADOLESCENT SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, PREGNANCY, AND PARENTHOOD vii (1995).
Teenagers with higher skills and better scores on standardized school achievement tests are more likely to delay sexual activity (Miller & Moore, 1990) and less likely to have a nonmarital birth during high school (Moore, Manlove, Glei, & Morrison, 1997; Romano, Manlove, & Sugland, 1998).