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guanine (gwäˈnēn), organic base of the purine family. It was reported (1846) to be in the guano of birds; later (1879–84) it was established as one of the major constituents of nucleic acids. The accepted structure of the guanine molecule was proposed in 1875, and the compound was first synthesized in 1900. When combined with the sugar ribose in a glycosidic linkage, guanine forms a derivative called guanosine (a nucleoside), which in turn can be phosphorylated with from one to three phosphoric acid groups, yielding the three nucleotides GMP (guanosine monophosphate), GDP (guanosine diphosphate), and GTP (guanosine triphosphate). Analogous nucleosides and nucleotides are formed from guanine and deoxyribose. The nucleotide derivatives of guanine perform important functions in cellular metabolism. GTP acts as a coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism and in the biosynthesis of proteins; it can readily donate one of its phosphate groups to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an extremely important intermediate in the transfer of chemical energy in living systems. GTP is the source of the guanosine found in RNA and deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) is the source of the deoxyguanosine in DNA, and thus guanine is intimately involved in the preservation and transfer of genetic information. Guanine is said to account for the iridescence of fish scales and the white, shiny appearance of the skin of many amphibians and reptiles.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



2-amino-6-oxypurine. a purine base, widely distributed in animal and plant cells (it is a constituent of nucleic acids and is present in a free state).

It is the main component of the excrements of spiders and birds and was discovered in guano (hence the name). A considerable amount of guanine is present in the scales and skin of fish, reptiles, and amphibians. The calcium compound of guanine gives fish scales their characteristic shine. In mammal organisms, guanine is transformed into xanthine under the action of the enzyme guanase.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


C5H5ON5 A purine base; occurs naturally as a fundamental component of nucleic acids.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Desde 1990 se han venido desarrollando metodos para detectar la presencia del GMP como indice de adulteracion de leche por agregado de suero [7, 23, 25].
gmp has succeeded in winning more than 430 prizes in national and international competitions, among them more than 220 first prizes and a large number of awards for exemplary architecture.
GMP will also fund alternative and renewable energy assets and other projects related to the clean energy sector.
The integrated MJ Platform and Isolocity system allow compliance with the following systems: GMP, GPP, the International Organization for Standardization, the Canadian Cannabis Tracking and Licensing System and track-and-trace systems in the United States.
"GMP agreed with our findings and they scheduled a hearing to take place on July 8 and 9, and the case against the officer was found proven by the independent panel," the statement added.
Founded in 1995, GMP's capital markets business offers corporate clients and institutional investors a broad range of investment banking services, including equity capital raising, mergers and acquisitions expertise, institutional sales and trading and research services through offices in Canada and the United Kingdom.
As a leading global Contract Development and Manufacturing Organization (CDMO), WuXi STA has passed inspections by regulatory bodies in the U.S., Canada, EU, Switzerland, China, Australia and New Zealand to supply APIs and GMP advanced intermediates for partners.
Under all three inspections, there are no issues related to data integrity, which demonstrates strong expertise in addressing this regulatory requirement, and the quality system at the company strictly adheres to the US FDA's GMP regulations.
The GMP lab expansion will add nearly 6,000 square feet of new lab space to the existing 41,000 square feet at the Athlone facility.
Post-acquisition, the Constapark founders and team will join the Bengaluru office of GMP. This acquisition is a sign of consolidation in the rapidly-evolving mobility industry and will help strengthen the domestic market leadership of Get My Parking.
ISLAMABAD -- A team from United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has started training DRAP officers on Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) with the aim of capacity building and strengthening inspection system.