Born Oct. 27, 1698, in Paris; died there Jan. 4, 1782. French architect.
Gabriel studied with his father. He became the chief architect to the king and president of the Academy of Architecture in 1742. He was one of the founders of 18th-century classicism. Gabriel’s work included the remodeling of the interior of the Palace of Versailles and the reconstruction of its north wing, later named the Gabriel wing, 1735-74; the École Militaire in Paris, 1751-75; and the opera hall at Versailles, 1763-70. He juxtaposed to the emphatically representational nature of 17th-century architecture and the capricious intricacy of the Rococo decor the principles of rational planning, logical clarity, simplicity and purity of forms, and refined restraint. Le Petit Trianon (1762-64), constructed by Gabriel in the Versailles park, signaled the abandonment of aristocratic palaces in favor of intimate private residences. The plan and construction of Place Louis XV (today the Place de la Concorde) in Paris, which was linked with the main city thoroughfares and open to the Seine (1753-75), marked an important phase in the development of architectural ensembles as an organic part of the city’s layout.