Born Mar. 12. 1863. in Pescara; died Mar. 1. 1938, in Gardone Riviera. Italian writer and political figure. Came from a wealthy family.
D’Annunzio’s works are a typical manifestation of decadence in Italian literature. The themes and images of verismo appeared in his early works, but even in these he portrayed the people as a wild mob possessed by the thirst for destruction (Virgin Soil, 1882; San Pantaleone, 1886) and replaced social problems with the idea of the inferiority of the “little man” (Giovanni Episcopo, 1892). D’Annunzio’s novels, dramas, and poems are characterized by their irrationalism, aestheticism, and hedonism. Their main hero is a Nietz-schean “superman,” an amoralist who glorifies the dictatorship of the “strong personality” (the novels The Child of Pleasure, 1889; The Maidens of the Rocks, 1895; The Flame of Life, 1900; the dramas The Dead City, 1898; Gioconda, 1899). At the end of the 19th century D’Annunzio began to praise Italian imperialism and became its propagandist (the dramas Glory, 1899; Stronger than Love, 1907; the cycle of poems Songs of Foreign Exploits, 1911). During World War I (1914–18), D’Annunzio served in the army; he was a pilot and an officer in the infantry. After the war he became one of the leaders of the nationalist movement, which was associated with Fascist organizations. In September 1919 he led the nationalist expedition which seized the Yugoslav city of Rijeka (Fiume) and was its commandant until December 1920 when, at the request of the Entente, the Italian government ordered D’Annunzio to leave the city. D’Annunzio welcomed the military campaigns of Italian Fascism and celebrated its colonial seizures (the collection of articles and speeches I Hold You, Africa; 1936). During the Fascist period he received the title of prince in 1924, and in 1937 he headed the Royal Academy of Sciences.
Among D’Annunzio’s legacy are works that have a certain artistic value, such as the collection of poems Alcyone (1904), the play The Daughter of Jorio (1904). and the lyrical prose work Nocturne (1921).
WORKSOpera omnia, vols. 1–49. Edited by A. Sodini. Milan. 1927–37.
In Russian translation:
Sobr. soch.. vols. 1–12. St. Petersburg [no date].
REFERENCESVorovskii. V. V. “Fakel pod meroi.” Soch., vol. 2. [Leningrad] 1931.
Alatri. P. Nitti, D’Annunzio e la questione adriatica (1919–1920). Milan. 1959.
De Michelis. E. Tutto D’Annunzio. Milan. 1960.
Salinari. C. Miti e coscienza del decadentismo italiano. 2nd ed. Milan. 1962.
Valeri. N. D’Annunzio davanti at fascismo. Florence, 1963.
Circeo, E. Saggio sul D’Annunzio narratore. Rome .
Paratore. E. Studi dannunziani. [Naples] 1966.