Gaius Marius


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Marius, Gaius

 

Born circa 157 B.C. in Cereatae, near Arpinum; died 86 B.C. in Rome. Roman military leader and political figure.

Marius came from a plebeian family. In 119 B.C. he became a popular tribune. In 115, after his marriage to the patrician Julia, the aunt of Julius Caesar, he became a praetor. In 109, during the war with Jugurtha, he became a legate. With the support of the equites and plebes he was elected consul in 107. In 105 he brought the war with Jugurtha to a victorious conclusion. The threat of an invasion of Italy by the Cimbri and Teutons forced the Romans, in violation of the law, to elect the popular military leader consul for several years in a row (104-101 B.C.). In 102, Marius routed the Teuton tribes, and in 101 he defeated the Cimbri. During the wars Marius reformed the army; historical sources report the recruitment of poor people into the army contrary to tradition and tell of other changes. Marius promoted professionalism in the army.

Marius was again elected consul in 100 B.C., and in alliance with the popular tribune Apuleus Saturninus he pressed the popular assembly to pass a law allocating land to veterans. However, he then turned against Saturninus and as consul helped suppress the latter’s movement. He took part in the Social War of 90 (or 91) to 88. With the assistance of the popular tribune Sulpicius Rufus in 88 he received command in the first Mithridatic War (89-84 B.C.), but when Sulla took Rome (88), Marius was forced to flee to Africa. After Sulla left for Greece, Marius landed in Etruria, collected an army (admitting even runaway slaves), and in alliance with Cinna, who had been exiled by the followers of Sulla, took Rome (87). After dealing harshly with his political enemies, Marius took up once again (for the seventh time) his office as consul, but after a few days he died.

REFERENCE

Carney, T. F., “A Biography of G. Marius.” Proceedings of the African Classical Association, 1962, supplement, no. 1.

V. M. SMIRIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Gaius Marius, 16 years old and as green as a leaf of grass, joins the Roman army just in time to take part in a major campaign.
This is a short book, with some deficiencies, but nevertheless an important contribution to the study of Gaius Marius [157-86 BCE] and the army of the Roman Republic.
(4) A biography of an aspiring warlord like Gaius Marius, then, seems an odd Life on which to model comparisons to Odysseus, who is not renowned for a lust for warfare or straightforward heroism.
The Life of Marius begins with the words, "We are unable to state the third name of Gaius Marius" (1.1).
For historical treatments of Gaius Marius, see Carney (1970) and Evans (1994).
It is surely significant that Gaius Marius departed to Pessinus in Phrygia in Asia Minor at precisely the same time.
Didius, responsible for many deaths in this region and holding a much sought-after command, may have incurred the enmity of Gaius Marius as a result.
During both these commands, on either side of the Pyrenees and at other times in the career of Gaius Marius, the formulation of the patron-client bond or hospitium contract also made its indelible mark.
Evans, Gaius Marius: A Political Biography (Pretoria 1994) 29-30.

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