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Galatz(both: gäläts`), city (1990 pop. 326,139), E Romania, on the lower Danube. It is a regional administrative and economic center and a major inland port, home of the Romanian Danube flotilla. Grain and timber are the chief exports. The city is also an important rail junction and has a large iron and steel plant and the nation's largest shipyard. Of medieval origin, Galaţi became an international trading center in the 18th cent. and was a free port from 1834 to 1883. It was the seat (1856–1939) of the European Danube Navigation Commission. In 1944, German troops devastated the town and killed more than half the population. Galaţi is the see of an Orthodox bishop and is a cultural center. An agricultural college and a technical institute are in the city. The 17th-century Cathedral of St. George contains the tomb of Ivan Mazeppa.
a district in eastern Rumania located between the Prut, Siret, and Danube rivers. Area, 4,400 sq km. Population, 495,800 (1968)—46 percent urban. Its administrative center is the city of Galati.
The district of Galati is situated primarily in the eastern part of the lower Danubian plain (Bărăgan lowlands). Its industry is associated chiefly with the processing of local agricultural products—flour milling, canning, and wine-making, (especially in Lieşti and Nicoreşti). The industry of the city of Galaţi is more varied. Grain, such as corn, wheat, and rice, is predominant in the district’s agriculture. Industrial crops include sunflowers and sugar beets. Vegetable growing is also important. Vineyards are cultivated in the northern part of the district. There is also sheep raising, mainly of fine-fleeced breeds, as well as fishing on the Danube.
IU. A. KRUKOVSKII
a city and port in eastern Rumania, on the left bank of the Danube. Administrative center of the district of Galati. Population, 160,000 (1968).
Galaţi is a junction for maritime, river, railroad, highway, and pipeline routes, as well as an industrial center noted for machine building. It is the main center of Rumanian shipbuilding, but railroad workshops, agricultural machine building, and metalworking are also important. Of similar significance is the ferrous metal industry. There is a sheet-rolling plant, and a metallurgical combine (Galaţi Metallurgical Combine) with an expected yearly output of 4-5 million tons of steel is under construction. The developed industries include textiles (cotton and flax), garments, food processing (flour, meat, and fish and fruit canning), chemicals (paints and lacquers), woodworking, shoemaking, and the manufacture of building materials. Galaţi is a center for importing iron ore, coke, cotton, and machinery. Its exports include timber, grain, and petroleum products. It has polytechnical and pedagogical institutes. Galati is mentioned in written sources as early as the 14th century.
IU. A. KRUKOVSKII