Gall Midges


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Related to Gall Midges: Cecidomyiidae

Gall Midges

 

(Cecidomyiidae or Itonididae), a family of mosquito-like insects of the order Diptera. The dimensions of the gall midge are small (1-5 mm), and the nervation of the wings is simple. The larvae, which are narrowed at the ends and are red, orange, or green, carry a chitinous sternal spatula on the ventral side. Larvae of the lower Cecidomyiidae develop in the rotting remains of plants, and those of the higher Cecidomyiidae in the tissues of plants, causing the formation of galls (hence the designation “gall midge”); the species of a gall midge is determined according to the species of its plant host and according to the shape of the gall it forms. Adult gall midges live approximately 20 days, and they do not feed. About 3,500 species are known. Gall midges are found in Europe, Asia, and North America. There are about 500 species in the USSR. Because they develop in the tissues of plants, many gall midges cause serious damage to agriculture and forests. The most dangerous species are the Hessian fly; the millet midge; the wheat midge (Contarinia tritici), which damages the ears of rye and wheat; the rye-stem gnat (Hybolasioptera cerealis), which damages the bundles of stalks in many cultivated cereals; the pear midge (Contarinia pyrivora); and the raspberry midge (Lasioptera rubi), which damages horticultural gardens. Protection against gall midges is often very difficult; it is based on agrotechnical and other measures.

A. B. LANGE

References in periodicals archive ?
Among these, gall midges, caterpillars, leafhoppers, thrips, and mites are the most important pests attacking mango (Pena and Mohyuddin, 1997; Pena et al., 1998).
For example, introduction of sessile stages or young larval stages of coccinellids, lacewings, and gall midges should be avoided as they are susceptible to IGP.
One of the biotic factors causing damage on beech leaves is gall midges belonging to family Cecidomyiidae (Diptera).
Cecidomyiidae (Gall Midges), pp 293-314In Borkent A, CummingJM, Wood DM, Woodley NE, Zumbado MA [eds.], Manual of Central America Diptera.
Among these, about 20 species of gall midges are known worldwide associated with various parts of mango plant including bark, shoots, leaves, pre and post flowering shoot buds, inflorescence buds, axillaries, flowers, newly formed fruit and twigs (Srivastava, 1998).
About 16 species of gall midges attack mango in Asia where this plant is indigenous.
The most important references are the classic work by Houard (1933), the book by Gagne (1994) on gall midges (Cecidomyiidae) and local studies in Brazil (Maia 2001, 2005, Goncalves-Alvin and Fernandes 2001, Maia and Fernandes 2004, Costa De Oliveira and Maia 2005, Urso-Guiamares and Scareli-Santos 2006); Costa Rica (Hanson and Gomez-Laurito 2005); Mexico (Cuevas-Reyes et al.
The gall midges were identified by the authors based on the gall morphology, host plant and original descriptions.
In Pakistan, a survey for mango gall midges and their natural enemies was initiated for the first time in 2007.
Emergence holes were counted concurrently on both species and classified according to whether they were the result of emerging gall midges or parasitoids (Stiling & Rossi 1997).
The Museu Nacional/UFRJ comprises the unique reference collection of gall midges from Brazil.