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, traditionally pastoral tribes who live in W and S Ethiopia and N Kenya. They number more than 25 million. About half are Muslim, about a third Ethiopian Orthodox, and about a sixth Protestant.
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Gallas, a people living in Ethiopia and northern Kenya. Their population is more than 5.9 million in Ethiopia and approximately 50,000 in Kenya (1967, estimate). Their language belongs to the Cushitic group of the Semito-Hamitic language family.
The Galla are subdivided into several groups, among them the Tulama (Shoa Province), Macha (Wallaga Province), Arusi, and Boran (Sidamo Province and Kenya). Their main occupation is farming, which is combined with cattle raising in central and western Ethiopia; cattle raising is the chief occupation in southern Ethiopia and Kenya. Some of the Galla profess Christianity of the Monophysite sect; others are Muslims. In central Ethiopia the Galla are consolidated with other peoples into a single Ethiopian nation.
REFERENCESRait, M. V. Narody Efiopii. Moscow, 1965.
Haberland, E. Galla Süd-Äthiopiens. [Stuttgart] 1963.
M. V. RAIT
the language of the Galla people in southern and eastern Ethiopia and northern Kenya (approximately 6 million people; 1967, estimate). Galla belongs to the Cushitic group of the Semito-Hamitic language family.
The consonant system of Galla contains glottalized k and t and preglottalized d. Tones and the length of vowels and consonants play a phonological role. Grammatical meaning is expressed primarily by means of suffixes, which are basically agglutinative but with strong phonetic interference from adjacent morphemes, which brings the word structure close to that of the inflectional type. Case relations are expressed by noun suffixes, postpositions, and accent. There is a marked nominative case. The noun has semigrammatical categories of singularity (similar to the Russian goroshina, “pea”) and plurality (used much less frequently than in European languages). The verb is inflected for the person, number, and gender of the subject and for tense, mood, and voice (reflexive, passive, causative, and so on); it has special negative forms. Word formation is of the suffixal type. The Semito-Hamitic internal inflection has been lost. Word order is relatively fixed: the verb-predicate is located at the end of the sentence, and the attributive usually follows the dependent member.
REFERENCESMoreno, M. M. Grammatica teorico-pratica della lingua galla con esercizi. Rome, 1939.
Thiene, G. da. Dizionario della lingua galla. Harar, 1939.
Tucker, A. N., and M. A. Bryan. Linguistic Analysis: The Non-Bantu Languages of North-Eastern Africa. London-New York-Cape Town, 1966.
A. B. DOLGOPOL’SKII