Gallicisms

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Gallicisms

 

words and expressions in Russian that have come from French, both in the form of direct borrowings and derivational, semantic, or syntactic caiques.

The period from the 17th century to the first half of the 18th century was characterized by direct borrowings, especially for the names of household furnishings, attire, foods, and so on, such as liustra (“luster” or “chandelier”), korsazh (“corsage” or “bodice”), plombir (“ice cream”), ekipazh (“carriage” or “crew”), rezon (“reason”), kompliment(“compliment”), and reputatsiia (“reputation”). In the latter part of the 18th century the number of direct loans diminished, but some degree of convergence may be seen between the semantic systems of the Russian literary language and the Western European languages, particularly French. This process was associated with the literary activities of V. K. Trediakovskii, A. P. Sumarokov, and N. M. Karamzin. After literary standards were established for the Russian language in the early 19th century, some gallicisms fell into disuse, and subsequent new borrowings from French have been few in number.

REFERENCES

Bogoroditskii, V. A. Obshchii kurs russkoi grammatiki, 5th ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935. Chapter 17.
Bulakhovskii, L. A. Kurs russkogo literaturnogo iazyka, 4th ed., vol. 2. Kiev, 1953.
Vinogradov, V. V. Ocherki po istorii russkogo literaturnogo iazyka XVII-XIX vv., 2nd ed. Moscow, 1938.
Shakhmatov, A. A. Ocherk sovremennogo russkogo literaturnogo iazyka, 4th ed. Moscow, 1941. Chapter 3.
References in periodicals archive ?
One element with which Marot appropriates, assimilates, and eventually surpasses Virgil in his bucolic model is already notable in the first French rendering of the first eclogue: the underlying Gallicism that pervades his most personal and rustic verse.
The fact that a number of Gallicisms were also noticed, but not compiled, shows that both types of borrowing coexisted in the same sociolect (corbeille, mademoiselle, monsieur, table, toilette).
Lexical Borrowing in the Romance Languages: a critical study of italianisms in french and gallicisms in italian from 1100 to 1900.
As it would have been impossible to convey them in Italian, Eco flipped the situation around, writing his translation based on Gallicisms.
Yet, there are critics that point to a large number of Gallicisms in the Rowley poems (cf.
For the Gallicisms and old-Russian words in the original text, he seeks equivalents that seem starkly exaggerated (since many Gallicisms had been fully assimilated by Pushkin's time).
essential Gallicisms on nearly every page, plus a genuine love and respect for Faure's music devoid of the patronizing praise typical of much twentieth-century English-language writing on the composer, all assure that Gabriel Faure: The Songs and Their Poets "will be a lively read.
Only the slightest differences of opinion or lost opportunities struck me as betraying a leaning toward gallicisms rather than contemporary American diction.
In Italian, the historian mixes registers, and uses ideosyncratic expresions including "Spanish expressions and occasional Gallicisms .
IN 1713, THE ROYAL Academy of the Spanish Language was founded in Madrid with the objective of stopping Gallicisms and other corruptions threatening the Spanish language.
The translations in the footnotes are always Tolstoy's own and, as Gary Saul Morson has shown, they are a peculiar text, full with wordplay and Gallicisms (47).
Among loanwords we find the Gallicisms abrey, e, accordeon, cabaret, cache-pot, cahier de doleance, and Anglicisms such as abstract, Access provider, account).