Gallicisms


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Related to Gallicisms: Gallicanism, Anglicism, remonstrative, spurious
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Gallicisms

 

words and expressions in Russian that have come from French, both in the form of direct borrowings and derivational, semantic, or syntactic caiques.

The period from the 17th century to the first half of the 18th century was characterized by direct borrowings, especially for the names of household furnishings, attire, foods, and so on, such as liustra (“luster” or “chandelier”), korsazh (“corsage” or “bodice”), plombir (“ice cream”), ekipazh (“carriage” or “crew”), rezon (“reason”), kompliment(“compliment”), and reputatsiia (“reputation”). In the latter part of the 18th century the number of direct loans diminished, but some degree of convergence may be seen between the semantic systems of the Russian literary language and the Western European languages, particularly French. This process was associated with the literary activities of V. K. Trediakovskii, A. P. Sumarokov, and N. M. Karamzin. After literary standards were established for the Russian language in the early 19th century, some gallicisms fell into disuse, and subsequent new borrowings from French have been few in number.

REFERENCES

Bogoroditskii, V. A. Obshchii kurs russkoi grammatiki, 5th ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935. Chapter 17.
Bulakhovskii, L. A. Kurs russkogo literaturnogo iazyka, 4th ed., vol. 2. Kiev, 1953.
Vinogradov, V. V. Ocherki po istorii russkogo literaturnogo iazyka XVII-XIX vv., 2nd ed. Moscow, 1938.
Shakhmatov, A. A. Ocherk sovremennogo russkogo literaturnogo iazyka, 4th ed. Moscow, 1941. Chapter 3.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, as will be mentioned in the discussion section, an excessively narrow approach would also exclude many of the "traditional" false Anglicisms, such as footing, from any language other than French, if it was argued that in all other languages footing is not an Anglicism (false or genuine), but a Gallicism. We have decided to consider all of these Anglicisms because it is their apparent "Englishness" that favours their expansion, and such a criterion applies to this "additional" category of hybrid formations.
tennis), but gallicisms survive in the domains of the railway, the
Dante uses "every register of his native language, and further embellishes this with Latinisms, Gallicisms, a wide range of neologisms, regionalisms, words associated with particular literary genres, other kinds of technical vocabulary--drawn, for instance, from optics, astronomy, scholastic theology, mysticism, and language of merchants--and, finally, foreign words" (13).
II 13, Eliot's early poems are distinguished by an unambiguously French atmosphere created through such Gallicisms as 'Regard the moon' ('Rhapsody on a Windy Night').
One witness provided this hearsay testimony, transcribed in Latin full of spelling and grammatical errors and peppered with Gallicisms: Et dicto die Parasceves, quo Salvator noster in cruce mortem subiit temporalem, hujusmodi hostias sacratas, in su passonis blasphemiam et contumeliam, suis cultellis et ferraturis diversis, contemptuose et ignominiose crudeliter transfixerunt.
Among loanwords we find the Gallicisms abrey, e, accordeon, cabaret, cache-pot, cahier de doleance, and Anglicisms such as abstract, Access provider, account).
In a characteristic example, Nabokov writes in his Commentary about Pushkin's defense of the Gallicisms. Pushkin exclaims, "Where are our Addisons, La Harpes, Schlegels?
These are the people who use the worst sort of Anglicisms and Gallicisms, but reject the simple 'me parece' as artificial!
(50) Another extreme is a translation in which the Russian text looks like a foreign one transliterated into Cyrillic, and all the Anglicisms and Gallicisms, "rhizomes" and "disseminations," gain the appearance of appropriateness and self-sufficiency.
In Italian, the historian mixes registers, and uses ideosyncratic expresions including "Spanish expressions and occasional Gallicisms ...
IN 1713, THE ROYAL Academy of the Spanish Language was founded in Madrid with the objective of stopping Gallicisms and other corruptions threatening the Spanish language.
(1: 593) (2) The translations in the footnotes are always Tolstoy's own and, as Gary Saul Morson has shown, they are a peculiar text, full with wordplay and Gallicisms (47).