Galliformes

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Galliformes

[‚gal·ə′fȯr‚mēz]
(vertebrate zoology)
An order of birds that includes important domestic and game birds, such as turkeys, pheasants, and quails.

Galliformes

 

an order of birds. The galliforms measure from 12 cm (Japanese quail [Coturnix coturnix japonicus]) to 235 cm (great argus pheasant [Argusianus argus]) in length and weigh from 45 g (Japanese quail) to 11.5 kg (wild turkey; domesticated turkeys, up to 22.5 kg). The bill is short and strong. The legs are strong and adapted for scratching the earth or forest floor for food. The wings are broad, generally suited only for short bursts of flight. The plumage is dense; the feathers have a supplementary shaft, except in the hoatzin. The down is sparse and found only on the pterylae. The males of many gallinaceous birds are more brightly colored than the females. Some species have bare facial parts of the head, which is brightly colored or has fleshy knobs (crest, wattles, brows).

The order comprises two suborders: Opisthocomi (one species) and Galli. The latter includes 240 living and about 100 fossil species, united in six families: Megapodiidae (mound builders), Cracidae (curassows, guans, and chachalacas), Phasianidae (partridges, quails, and pheasants), Tetraonidae (grouse), Numididae (guinea fowls), and Meleagrididae (turkeys). The galliforms are widely distributed. They are found in all zones, from the tundras to tropical forests and high mountains. They are absent only in the antarctic. The distribution of individual families is limited. Gallinaceous birds are either sedentary birds or wandering birds; only the quails migrate seasonally. Most galliforms are terrestrial birds; some feed on trees. Only the hoatzin and the cracids are true arboreal birds.

The nesting period of some galliforms is preceded by courtship. Many gallinaceous birds are polygamous, and the males do not help care for the offspring. The nests are on the ground (except those of the cracids and the hoatzin). There are two to 20 or more eggs per clutch. They are incubated 14 to 30 days. The megapodes do not sit on the eggs but incubate them in sand or decaying leaves. The young are hatched with a thick covering of down and immediately leave the nest. They feed predominantly on animal food (insects, worms); the adult birds feed on plant food (seeds, buds, berries, pine needles, catkins, leaves).

All galliforms except the hoatzin are game birds and valuable objects of commercial hunting. In the USSR the willow ptarmigan, hazel hen, black grouse, pheasant, and quail are of special significance. The numbers of many galliforms are decreasing due to excessive hunting and changes in their habitat as a result of human activity. Some galliforms (pheasant, grouse, chukar partridge) are raised on farms. The red jungle fowl, turkey, and guinea fowl have been domesticated and have served as the ancestors of numerous breeds of poultry.

REFERENCES

Ptitsy Sovetskogo Soiuza, vol. 4. Edited by G. P. Dement’ev and N. A. Gladkov. Moscow, 1952.
Zhizn’ zhivotnykh, vol. 5. Moscow, 1970.

A. I. IVANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
For a long period, this breeding system was not thought to occur in Galliformes, since in general opinion, such parental care is not favored by species with highly precocial hatchlings (Arnold and Owens, 1998; Cockburn, 2006).
Cabe resaltar que estudios recientes mencionan que este parasito ocasiona altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad en aves galliformes (Tarazona 1999, Zhang et al.
Structure and composition of the habitat as well as its suitability for Galliformes (food and/or cover availability, predator abundance, etc.) can be major determinants of survival (Flather and Bevers 2002).
Therefore, the current regulations for nature reserve management may not be suitable for maintaining the survival of this galliform species.
Abstract.- In this study random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to infer the genetic profile of the black francolin (Francolinus francolinus, Galliformes) (N = 23) collected in five Pakistani areas (Alipur, Bait Suvai, Chakwal, Haroonabad and Rakni).
In fact, recommendations for captive mammals (rodents, nonhuman primates, and rabbits) and birds (Galliformes) span this same range, except for pigs (0.10%) and rats (0.05%).
For galliform species, metal leg bands and radio-transmitters are widely used marking techniques.
Nutritional and Genetic Adaptation of Galliform Birds: Implications for Hand-rearing and Restocking.
The definitive host for the trematode C faba includes both passeriform and galliform species, and infection has been reported in birds in Europe, Asia, and the Americas (North, Central, and South).
Hence, it is necessary to carry out specific projects on habitat improvements to increase Galliform and Lagomorph populations, with rising investments of provincial administrations, hunting districts, hunting estates, parks and natural reserves.
Survey of Galliform monitoring programs and techniques used in the United States and Canada, in January 2004.
2006: A molecular timescale for galliform birds accounting for uncertainty in time estimates and heterogeneity of rates of DNA substitutions across lineages and sites.--Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38: 499-509.