Gallipoli campaign

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Gallipoli campaign,

1915, Allied expedition in World War I for the purpose of gaining control of the DardanellesDardanelles
or Çanakkale Boğazi
, strait, c.40 mi (60 km) long and from 1 to 4 mi (1.6 to 6.4 km) wide, connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara and separating the Gallipoli peninsula of European Turkey from Asian Turkey.
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 and Bosporus straits, capturing Constantinople, and opening a Black Sea supply route to Russia. The idea of forcing the straits was originally promoted by Winston Churchill, then first lord of the admiralty. After the failure (Mar., 1915) of a British naval force to open the straits, British, Australian, and New Zealand troops landed (Apr. 25) at various points on the east coast of the Gallipoli Peninsula, while a French force landed on the Asian side of the straits. The Turks, under General Liman von SandersLiman von Sanders, Otto
, 1855–1929, German general. In 1913 he was made head of the German military mission to Constantinople to reorganize the army of the Ottoman Empire.
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, had been reinforced, and they put up stubborn resistance, preventing the Allies from making any important gains. Allied cooperation was poor, and there was lack of coordination between land and naval forces that resulted in a premature naval attack without sufficient support from the army. The two-month lag between the navy's arrival at Gallipoli (Feb., 1915) and the arrival of land forces (Apr., 1915) gave the Turkish army ample time to reinforce its troops. By April, the Turks had deployed six times as many troops as they had ready two months earlier. The landing (Aug., 1915) at Suvla on the west coast of the peninsula resulted in severe casualties. After months of costly fighting the Allied commander, Sir Ian Hamilton, was replaced by Sir Charles Munro, and the Allies withdrew from the area on Jan. 9, 1916. The evacuation was brilliantly executed.


See Sir Ian Hamilton, Gallipoli Diary (1920); R. R. James, Gallipoli (1965); L. A. Carlyon, Gallipoli (2001).

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References in periodicals archive ?
The prestige this military leader gained during the Gallipoli Campaign allowed him to create the Republic of Turkey as a secular nation with Western values, revitalising it from the ruins of the Ottoman Empire.
The chief value of this book lies in its coverage of Turkish mapping activities, both before and during the Gallipoli Campaign. The discussion of non-Turkish mapping is largely based on readily available sources and contributes little to our understanding of British and French activities.
Better known in the West as the "Gallipoli Campaign," the ensuing land warfare lasted from April 1915 to January 1916 and ended with the Allies' complete withdrawal from the area.
There is much material on that nation's role in the Gallipoli campaign that is only available in New Zealand archives.
ISLAMABAD -- The sacrifice and service of Pakistani servicemen attached to the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) in the 1915 Gallipoli campaign were remembered here at a Service at the Australian High Commission.
ON THIS DAY LAST YEAR: The Duke of Cambridge made it to the national commemoration of the centenary of the Gallipoli campaign as the wait for the royal baby continued.
It was dedicated to James Marlow who had died in action in the Gallipoli campaign during the First World War.
A 17-gun salute marked the centenary anniversary of the last rounds fired during the Gallipoli campaign.
ON THIS DAY LAST YEAR: It was announced that the only surviving ship from the Gallipoli campaign in the First World War was to be opened to the public for the first time thanks to PS1.75 million of lottery cash.
British naval forces shelled the forts at the entrance of the Dardanelles on November 1, 1914, well before the formal commencement of the Gallipoli campaign. The purpose of the attack was more to punish Turkey for siding with the Triple Alliance than an attempt to secure the strait.