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Inflammation of the pancreas.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



acute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas.

Acute pancreatitis may be edematous, hemorrhagic, necrotic, or purulent. It is caused by overeating; by diseases of the stomach, duodenum, biliary tract, or liver; or by stenosis of the gland’s ducts. In acute pancreatitis the pancreas is digested by its own enzymes—trypsin, chymotrypsin, and lipase. When the gland’s tissue decomposes, kinins are released. They decrease arterial pressure and are a factor in blood circulation disorder of both organic and reflex origin in the pancreas. The kinins also cause bile to flow into the gland’s ducts, which damages their walls.

Acute pancreatitis may be marked by very severe abdominal pains, persistent vomiting, and collapse. Complications are peritonitis, abscesses, cysts of the gland, and diabetes mellitus. The disease is treated by narcotics, antibiotics, vasoconstrictors, and such antienzyme preparations as trasilol and contrical and by A. V. Vishnevskii’s paranephric novocain blockade. Serious complications are treated surgically.

In chronic pancreatitis, the gland’s external and internal secretions gradually become insufficient. The disease is treated by diet, antispasmodics, substitutes, cholegogues, antibiotics, and antienzyme preparations. During periods of remission, the patient may receive treatment at a health resort.


Shelagurov, A. A. Bolezni podzheludochnoi zhelezy. Moscow, 1970.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Dalapathi and his coauthors found 26 recurrent biliary events (19%): 15 were gallstone pancreatitis and 10 were cholecystitis; 1 patient developed cholangitis.
Yaghoubian et al., "Early cholecystectomy for mild to moderate gallstone pancreatitis shortens hospital stay," Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol.
Gallstone pancreatitis: A community teaching hospital experience.
Gallstones present with biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, gallstone pancreatitis and obstructive jaundice related to choledocolithiasis or Mirizzi syndrome.
Depending upon the preoperative diagnosis and laparoscopic findings, patients had diagnosis of biliary colic/ chronic cholecystitis 69.8% (n=314), acute calculous cholecystitis 22.2% (n=100), empyema gallbladder 6.9% (n=31), acute acalculous cholecystitis 0.2% (n=1), gallstone pancreatitis 0.4% (n=2), mucocele of gallbladder 0.2% (n=1), and polyps of gallbladder 0.2% (n=1) (fig-1).
Abdominal ultrasonography is useful if gallstone pancreatitis is suspected.
Regarding existing literature, Z'Graggen et al(8) have described a patient with pancreatic necrosis during recovery from gallstone pancreatitis in which Lactobacillus paracasei was isolated.
When cholecystectomy is indicated following gallstone pancreatitis, the severity of the disease should determine the timing of the surgery, Nicholas N.
Patients with gallstone pancreatitis typically have an ALT (alanine amino transferase) of [is greater than] 80 units per 100 ml and this test is often helpful when differentiating alcoholic from gallstone pancreatitis.
Out of the 60 patients, 29 (48.3%) patients had mild AP, 25 (41.7%) had gallstone pancreatitis, 3 (5%) patients had post blunt trauma pancreatitis and 3 (5%) had Post ERCP AP.
(1) It is reported that differences exist between the sexes in their predisposition toward gallstone pancreatitis. (2)
Symptomatic gallstone disease may lead to complications including acute cholecystitis, chronic cholecystitis, empyema of gallbladder, mucocele, choledocholithiasis with or without cholangitis, gallstone pancreatitis, gallstone ileus, and gallbladder carcinoma4.