Electrical and thermal phenomena occurring when a current-carrying conductor or semiconductor is placed in a magnetic field. The galvanomagnetic effects are closely related to the thermomagnetic effects. See Thermomagnetic effects
Let the electric current density j be transverse to the magnetic field Hz, for example, along x. Then the following transverse-transverse effects are observed: (1) Hall effect, an electric field along y. (2) Ettingshausen effect, a temperature gradient along y. Also the following transverse-longitudinal effects are observed: (3) Transverse magnetoresistance, an electrical potential change along x. (4) Nernst effect, a temperature gradient along x. See Hall effect, Magnetoresistance
Let the electric current density j be along H. Then, the most important effect is longitudinal magnetoresistance, or an electrical potential change along H.