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Galveston(găl`vəstən), city (1990 pop. 59,070), seat of Galveston co., on Galveston Island, SE Tex.; inc. 1839. The island lies across the entrance to Galveston Bay, an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico. Long causeways connect the city with the mainland, HoustonHouston,
city (1990 pop. 1,630,553), seat of Harris co., SE Tex., a deepwater port on the Houston Ship Channel; inc. 1837. Economy
The fourth largest city in the nation and the largest in the entire South and Southwest, Houston is a port of entry; a great
..... Click the link for more information. , and Texas CityTexas City,
city (1990 pop. 40,822), Galveston co., S Tex., on Galveston Bay, opposite the city of Galveston; inc. 1911. It is a railroad terminus and an industrial city and port with huge oil refineries, chemical plants, a large copper smelter, and factories making plastics and
..... Click the link for more information. . Once Texas's largest port, Galveston has been overshadowed by nearby Houston, whose port is linked to the gulf by a canal. Galveston remains a port of entry, however, and is also a destination for cruise ships. Oil refining and shipbuilding are major industries, and the city has metal fabricating, printing, seafood processing, and the manufacture of steel containers. It is also a beach and fishing resort, with its attractions enhanced by pink and white oleanders, bougainvillea, and other subtropical blooms.
The Spanish knew the bay and the island early; it was probably there that Cabeza de VacaCabeza de Vaca, Álvar Núñez
, c.1490–c.1557, Spanish explorer. Cabeza de Vaca [cow's head] was not actually a surname but a hereditary title in his mother's family; he is frequently called simply Álvar Núñez.
..... Click the link for more information. was shipwrecked in 1528. Settlement began in the 1830s. The natural port came gradually into its own despite scourges of yellow fever, hurricanes, and the occupation for a few months in 1862 by a small Union force. A 1900 hurricane resulted in thousands of deaths and left the city in ruins. Against future storms an enormous 10-mi (16-km)-long protective seawall was built; however, occasional hurricanes still can cause significant damage, especially on the portions of the island not protected by the seawall. Hurricane Ike (2008) was especially destructive.
Of interest are the Texas Heroes monument, the Rosenberg Library, several old homes, and a 142-acre nature and entertainment complex that includes a 10-story glass pyramid with rain forests and a bamboo forest. A Coast Guard base is in Galveston, as is the Univ. of Texas Medical Branch (including the Galveston National Laboratory) and a campus of Texas A&M Univ (including the Texas Maritime Academy).
See E. Larson, Isaac's Storm (1999).