Indo-Gangetic Plain

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Indo-Gangetic Plain

 

an alluvial plain in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, between the Himalayas in the north and the Deccan plateau in the south, approximately 3,000 km long and 250-350 km wide.

The Indo-Gangetic Plain is an alpine piedmont depression, filled with fragmented products from the contiguous Himalayan slopes and covered with old and recent alluvia. The plain has a flat surface, gently descending from a divide (at a height of 270 m) to the Indus and Ganges deltas. The plained relief is broken by protrusions of crystalline rock in the west and scarps of river terraces with heights of up to 60 m divided by ravines. The climate of the eastern part (Ganges and Brahmaputra basins) is subequatorial monsoon. A tropical climate prevails in the western region (Indus basin). Monsoon circulation weakens toward the west, and there is an increase in aridity of climate. Over large areas of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, average temperatures in July range from 30° to 36°C. Temperatures in January are approximately 20°C (in the northwest, 12°C). Temperature drops to 0°C occur. Annual totals of precipitation decline from 1,500 mm in the southeast to 100-150 mm in the southwest.

The river system is dense. Rivers are deep-water, especially in the east. The largest rivers are the Indus with its tributary the Sutlej (known as the Panjnad in its lower course), which collects waters from the Jhelum, Chenab, Beas, and Ravi rivers (in Punjab); the Ganges with the Jamuna and its powerful left tributaries the Gomati, Ghaghara, and Gandak; and the Brahmaputra. The rivers are characterized by considerable fluctuations in water discharge. Runoffs are greatest in the summer as a result of the impact of monsoons and thawing of mountain snows; destructive flooding is frequent. Alluvial soils with various textures predominate.

An increase in climate aridity from east to west has an effect on the nature of terrain. Thick mangrove and evergreen forests grow in the east in the Ganges and Brahmaputra deltas. Deciduous forests and savannas are found in central plain areas; in the west there are salt marshes and sandy deserts. Practically nothing remains of natural vegetation in central areas and in the east. The Indo-Gangetic Plain is one of the oldest centers of world civilization. Terrains of cultivated savannas prevail (fields of rice, wheat, millet, corn, cotton, and other crops) with separate groves of palms and fruit trees. Two natural regions are identified within its limits, the arid Indus Valley and the moister Ganges Plain.

L. I. KURAKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
When people from Gangetic plains accuse Punjab of not resisting the invaders, they conveniently forget history and their treacherous role in the occupation of it during the mid-19th century.
Their Brahmins considered the lands beyond the upper Gangetic plains impure (Thapar 138).
There are now seven highways envisaged to be constructed from Tibet to Nepal one of which from Keyrong to the Indian border will be the shortest road linking the Gangetic Plains in India.
India has one of the largest urban systems in the world, with many cities located in agro-climatic zones which have high levels of particulate matter due to natural reasons such as Gangetic plains.
The disease has a special significance in eastern Gangetic plains of South Asia that includes India, Nepal and Bangladesh (Joshi et al.
By Soudhriti Bhabani in Kolkata The CM said that altogether 12 districts in the Gangetic plains were badly affected by the flood.
The Indian concern is that Nangarhar province sits on the mouth of the Khyber pass, which has been the route to enter into the Indus Valley and the Gangetic plains.
So, why would his successor Zawahiri, wade into something that is strategically untenable and practically impossible to implement in the Gangetic plains unless goaded by some shadowy power?
The Eastern Gangetic Plains is dominated by small farms with many female farmers who have little access to credit, quality seeds, fertilisers, irrigation, or formal extension services.
Life is a precarious business for the people who live on the sandy, mid-river islands, or chars, that dot the Gangetic plains of the Bay of Bengal's delta.
Buddhism was showing unmistakable signs of its decline long before Islam became established in the Gangetic plains, central India, and the northern end of present-day Andhra and Karnataka.
Moving to a larger scale, the third paper, by Shibani Bose, provides a detailed review (including a tabular database) of the archaeobotanical finds of the Middle Gangetic Plains, noting the presence of a number of significant crops at an early date, including Cannabis sativa in modern day Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.