(also, ganglioytic agent or ganglioplegic agent), a group of medicative substances that have the ability to suppress or block the transmission of nervous impulses in the ganglia of the autonomic nervous system.
Most ganglion-blocking agents are bis-ammonia compounds—that is, they contain two quaternary nitrogen atoms in a molecule. This causes an interaction with H-choline-reactive systems and determines the curative effect of the agent. Some ganglion-blocking agents are tetamonum, benzohexonium, pirilenum, pentaminum, dicolinum, dimecoline, arfonad, and hygronium. When the ganglion-blocking agents are used, various phenomena associated with the blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia are observed—the blocking of sympathetic ganglia causes a widening of the blood vessels and a lowering of arterial pressure; and the blocking of parasympathetic ganglia causes a weakening of the smooth musculature of the intestine and bronchi and a decrease in the secretions of the glands of the digestive tract. Ganglion-blocking agents are usually used for spasms of the peripheral vessels (such as occur in endarteritis obliterans), for the early stages of hypertonic sickness (when there is no organic damage to the cardiovascular system), for ulcerous diseases of the stomach and duodenum, for attacks of liver, intestinal, and renal colic, for certain types of bronchial asthma, and for the stimulation of childbirth (by increasing the tone of the musculature of the uterus). In surgical practice, ganglion-blocking agents are used for so-called control hypotonia and for decreasing various reflex influences on the cardiovascular system. In the treatment of hypertonic disease, ganglion-blocking agents are often prescribed in combination with reserpine, hypothiazide, and so forth.
REFERENCESDenisenko, P. P. Gangliolitiki. Leningrad, 1959.
Kharkevich, D. A. Ganglionarnye sredstva. Moscow, 1962.
Zakusov, V. V. Farmakologiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1966.
Mashkovskii, M. D. Lekarstvennye sredstva, 6th ed., parts 1-2. Moscow, 1967.
P. A. SHAROV