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(both: gän`so͞o`), province (2010 pop. 25,575,254), 141,000 sq mi (365,284 sq km), NW China. The capital is LanzhouLanzhou
or Lanchow
, city (1994 est. pop. 1,295,600), capital of Gansu prov., W China, on the Huang He (Yellow River) at its confluence with the Wei. It is a rail, highway, and air hub and the junction point to remote Xinjiang in extreme NW China.
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. Gansu is bordered by the Republic of Mongolia on the north. Its mountains include part of the Nanshan range and an extension of the Kunlun. The loess soil is fertile, but rainfall is inadequate and irrigation and land reclamation programs have had to be developed. Winter wheat, sorghum, millet, corn, rice, cotton, and tobacco are grown, especially in the Huang He (Yellow River) and Wei River valleys. Livestock (sheep, goats, horses, cows, and camels) are raised in the mountainous areas. Gansu's mineral resources include coal, copper, gold, nickel, zinc, and large deposits of iron ore and oil; two important oil fields are in the province. Lanzhou is a flourishing heavy industrial center, with one of the largest oil refineries in the country, and Yumen, though now declining, is China's oldest oil center; other towns are developing steadily. There is a satellite launch center near Jiuquan. Roads and railways have been extensively improved. Lanzhou is an important transportation hub; the Lanzhou–Xinjiang RR crosses the province, and the Lanzhou–Beijing RR has a connection through Mongolia to Russia.

Long isolated from the center of Chinese power, the Gansu area has traditionally been independent of all but the strongest central governments. After the 13th cent., Muslim strength grew, and fierce Muslim rebellions often plagued the central government. Today the province's strategic importance is enhanced by its control of communications into Xinjiang, Mongolia, and Russia. Although Han Chinese comprise most of the population, there are 11 major minorities, of which Muslims and Mongols are the largest. Gansu's boundaries have been changed several times in recent years. The former province of Ningxia was joined to it in 1954, then detached in 1958 and reconstituted as an autonomous region. In the 1969–70 redistricting, Gansu received a portion of W Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region. In 1979 this decision was reversed, and Gansu was restored to its former size.

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, Kansu
a province of NW China, between Tibet and Inner Mongolia: mountainous, with desert regions; forms a corridor, the Old Silk Road, much used in early and medieval times for trade with Turkestan, India, and Persia. Capital: Lanzhou. Pop.: 26 030 000 (2003 est.). Area: 366 500 sq. km (141 500 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
JISCO's 'BBB-' rating is linked to, but not equalised with, Fitch's internal assessment of the creditworthiness of Gansu province, as per Fitch's Government-Related Entities Rating Criteria.
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Speaking to reporters on the sidelines of an exhibition on investment, agriculture and industrial capacities of Gansu province held in Qom on August 10-11, the two sides underlined the need for utilization of economic capacities and capabilities of the two countries and seizing the opportunity for development of trade relations,
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Pharmaceutical company Biostar Pharmaceuticals Inc (NasdaqCM:BSPM) revealed on Friday that it has opened a new office in Gansu Province in China on 6 January 2014.
Including the 50 MW solar plant in Jinchang, Gansu Province, that was successfully grid-connected on 8 December 2013, as at 2 January 2014, the Group has achieved a total grid-connected aggregate annual designed capacity of 890 MW.
Gansu province, a region of mountains, desert and pastureland with a population of 26 million, is one of China's more lightly populated
"Let me express my deepest condolences and sympathies to many people who have been killed and wounded by yesterday's earthquake in Gansu province (in China)." "Our thoughts are with the families of victims and those wounded.
The quake near the city of Dingxi in Gansu province toppled brick walls and telephone lines, shattered mudand-tile-roofed houses and sent cascades of dirt and rock down hillsides that blocked roads and slowed rescue efforts by crews trying to reach remote areas.
China's new manned spacecraft Shenzhou-10 will travel from Beijing to Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre in northwest China's Gansu Province by train.
Another Tibetan self-immolated and died this week in northern China's Gansu Province protesting China's repressive policies in Tibetan areas, a Tibetan news portal and the government-in-exile said Friday.