Garamond, Claude

Garamond, Claude

(klōd gärämôN`), 1480–1561, Parisian designer and maker of printing types. According to tradition he learned his art from Geofroy ToryTory, Geofroy
, c.1480–1533, Parisian printer, typographer, and author, b. Bourges. After study in Italy, he won distinction as a professor in Paris and became editor to the printer Henri Estienne.
..... Click the link for more information.
. Types designed by Garamond were used in the printeries of the EstienneEstienne,
 Étienne
, or, Latinized, Stephanus
, family of Parisian and Genevan printers of the 16th and 17th cent., distinguished through five generations in scholarship as well as in their craft.
..... Click the link for more information.
 family, ColinesColines, Simon de
, d. 1546, Parisian printer. He was associated with the elder Henri Estienne and continued his work. Colines used elegant roman and italic types and a Greek type, with accents, that was superior to its predecessors.
..... Click the link for more information.
, PlantinPlantin, Christophe
, 1514–89, printer. Plantin left his native France for Belgium because of religious persecution. In Antwerp his work, at first as a bookbinder, began in 1549. He began the production and publishing of books in 1555.
..... Click the link for more information.
, and BodoniBodoni, Giambattista
, 1740–1813, Italian printer b. Piedmont. He was the son of a printer and worked for a time at the press of the Vatican. Under the patronage of the duke of Parma, he produced stately quartos and folios with impressive title pages and luxurious margins.
..... Click the link for more information.
, and types used by the ElzevirElzevir, Louis
, 1540–1617, Dutch printer and bookseller, whose name also appeared as Elsevier or Elzevier. He produced his first book at Leiden in 1583. Under his descendants, the business was continued until 1791.
..... Click the link for more information.
 family were based on his designs. His royal Greek type (grecs du roi), designed for Francis I, imitated the Greek writing of a scholar of his time (Angelos Vergetios). His roman and italic types, however, were innovations in being designed as metal types, not as imitations of handwriting. His roman letter forms won general acceptance in France and elsewhere and were a chief influence in establishing the roman letter as standard, in place of the gothic or black letter. Some modern type designs given his name are not closely related to his, but are based on types that were mistakenly attributed to him.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/