Gardiner, Sir John Eliot

Gardiner, Sir John Eliot,

1943–, English conductor, studied King's College, Cambridge, and with Nadia BoulangerBoulanger, Nadia
, 1887–1979, French conductor and musician, b. Paris. Boulanger was considered an outstanding teacher of composition. She studied at the Paris Conservatory, where in 1945 she became professor.
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 in Paris. Known particularly for performances of baroque music on period instruments, Gardiner founded the Monteverdi Choir in 1964, the Monteverdi Orchestra in 1968, the English Baroque Soloists in 1975, and the Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique in 1989. He made his opera debut (1969) at London's English National Opera conducting Mozart's Magic Flute, debuted (1973) at Covent Garden with Gluck's Iphigénie en Tauride, and made his U.S. conducting debut (1979) leading the Dallas Symphony Orchestra. He was principal conductor (1980–83) of the CBC Vancouver Orchestra, music director (1983–88) of the Opéra de Lyons, and artistic director (1981–90) of the Göttingen Handel Festival. Gardiner has also conducted many classical and romantic works, and has made hundreds of recordings. His Bach: Music in the Castle of Heaven (2013) is an analysis of J. S. BachBach, Johann Sebastian
, 1685–1750, German composer and organist, b. Eisenach; one of the greatest and most influential composers of the Western world. He brought polyphonic baroque music to its culmination, creating masterful and vigorous works in almost every musical
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 as man and musician. Gardiner was knighted in 1998.
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