Garry Kasparov


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Kasparov, Garry

(kəspär`ôf, –ŏf), 1963–, Armenian chess player, b. Azerbaijan (then in the USSR) as Garik Kimovich Wainshtein. He became the world junior champion at the age of 16 and was International Chess Federation (FIDE) champion from 1985 to 1993. His first title match (Sept., 1984–Feb., 1985) against Anatoly KarpovKarpov, Anatoly
, 1951–, Russian chess master. In 1970 he became the world's youngest international grand master. Karpov won (1975) the world championship by default when Bobby Fischer, the titleholder, refused to agree to terms for a match.
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 was the longest in chess history. After 48 games, the psychological and physical strain on Karpov, who was leading but appeared likely to lose, caused chess authorities to end the match inconclusively amid controversy. Kasparov won a rematch six months later, becoming the youngest world champion ever. He defended his title against Karpov in 1986, 1987, and 1990.

In 1993 Kasparov broke with FIDE and formed the rival Professional Chess Association, becoming its champion. In 1996 he became the first world champion to lose to a computer in a game played with time controls, but he won the match. In 1997, however, the computer, IBM's "Deep Blue," defeated him in a rematch (see also artificial intelligenceartificial intelligence
(AI), the use of computers to model the behavioral aspects of human reasoning and learning. Research in AI is concentrated in some half-dozen areas.
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). In 2000, Kasparov lost a match and his widely recognized status as the world's best chess master to his onetime protégé, the 25-year-old Russian Vladimir KramnikKramnik, Vladimir,
1975–, Russian chess player, b. Tuapse. Kramnik started to play chess at the age of four, and at eleven began studying with both Mikhail Botvinnik and Garry Kasparov.
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, but he subsequently was again regarded as the world's top player. A 2003 match with the chess program "Deep Junior" ended in a tie. One of the game's greatest players, Kasparov retired from professional chess in 2005 and subsequently devoted himself to political activities related to promoting democracy in Russia; he has been assaulted and arrested several times. In 2007 he sought to run for the Russian presidency but was barred because a registered political party had not nominated him; he subsequently withdrew, suggesting that attempts to meet the alternative requirements were frustrated by government interference. Having unsuccessfully sought Latvian citizenship in 2013, he became a Croatian citizen in 2014. He and his family have lived primarily in New York City since 2005. Kasparov's book Winter Is Coming (2015) reflects his fierce oppositiion to Vladimir PutinPutin, Vladimir Vladimirovich
, 1952–, Russian government official and political leader, b. Leningrad (now St. Petersburg). After graduating from the Leningrad State Univ.
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 and accuses the West, and particularly the United States, of appeasement in allowing Putin to remain in power.

Bibliography

See his autobiography, World of Change (1987), and his How Life Imitates Chess (2007).

References in periodicals archive ?
The supercomputer -- an IBM RS/6000 SP -- is more than ten times more powerful than the system made famous during Deep Blue's historic 1997 victory over chess grand master Garry Kasparov.
"Deep Blue Wins" read the headlines after IBM's supercomputer pounded world chess champion Garry Kasparov into submission last May.
En una esquina, representando a la raza humana, con 12 mil millones de neuronas: el campeon mundial de ajedrez Garry Kasparov. En la otra, representando a la raza cibernetica, con un procesamiento de informacion paralela en forma masiva, el sistema de computadoras RS/6000, base de la maquina llamada Azul profundo.
BIRTHDAYS: Edward Fox, actor, 79; Marjorie Yates, actress, 75; Al Green, soul singer, 70; Peabo Bryson, singer, 65; Peter Davison, actor, 65; Stephen Byers, former Labour MP, 63; Garry Kasparov, former chess champion, 53; Rick Schroder, actor, 46; Lou Bega, singer, 41.
Russian chess legend and political activist Garry Kasparov said: "Devastated to hear of the brutal murder of my long-time opposition colleague Boris Nemtsov.
Muscat: Russian chess legend Garry Kasparov, who landed in Muscat late on Monday night on a private visit, said he is delighted to be in the Sultanate and is looking forward to play a few games with some of the Omani talents in the coming days.
The last chess match to get as much publicity as Carlsen's triumph was the 1997 contest between then-champion Garry Kasparov and International Business Machines Corp.'s Deep Blue computer in New York City, the report added.
And then the last three- four days have seen the brouhaha surrounding Garry Kasparov.
Garry Kasparov held on to the title after a tough challenge from fellow countryman Anatoly Karpov.
STARS: World chess champion Garry Kasparov with pupils from Sacred Heart Primary School, Kensington BRAIN GAME: Former chess world title challenger Nigel Short takes on pupils from Kensington's Sacred Heart primary
Garry Kasparov will attend SAP Forum 2011, one of informatics events organized by software provider SAP, on September 23.
What was the name of the computer which battleship scuttled off the port of Montevideo beat world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1939?