In addition to these conditions, the differential diagnosis of a urethral caruncle should include the elimination of other diseases that cause paraurethral masses, such as senile urethritis, skeletal abscess, infected urethral diverticulum, ectopic ureterocele, Gartner's duct
cyst, residual Mullerian cyst, vaginal wall cyst, and urethral-vaginal neoplasms.
 Benign aetiologies include urethral caruncles, Skene's gland abscess/cysts, mucosal prolapse, ectopic ureterocoele, urethral diverticulum, vaginal wall cysts, Gartner's duct
cysts, leiomyomas and hamartomas.
Pyonephrosis and urinary retention secondary to a large Gartner's duct
cyst associated with single ectopic ureter in a pregnant woman.
Congential diverticula may also exist in females and are attributed to congenital anomalies including Skene's gland cysts or an ectopic ureter draining into a Gartner's duct
cysts from embryonic rest cells arise from remnants of the metanephric duct system.