Garry Kasparov

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Kasparov, Garry

(kəspär`ôf, –ŏf), 1963–, Armenian chess player, b. Azerbaijan (then in the USSR) as Garik Kimovich Wainshtein. He became the world junior champion at the age of 16 and was International Chess Federation (FIDE) champion from 1985 to 1993. His first title match (Sept., 1984–Feb., 1985) against Anatoly KarpovKarpov, Anatoly
, 1951–, Russian chess master. In 1970 he became the world's youngest international grand master. Karpov won (1975) the world championship by default when Bobby Fischer, the titleholder, refused to agree to terms for a match.
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 was the longest in chess history. After 48 games, the psychological and physical strain on Karpov, who was leading but appeared likely to lose, caused chess authorities to end the match inconclusively amid controversy. Kasparov won a rematch six months later, becoming the youngest world champion ever. He defended his title against Karpov in 1986, 1987, and 1990.

In 1993 Kasparov broke with FIDE and formed the rival Professional Chess Association, becoming its champion. In 1996 he became the first world champion to lose to a computer in a game played with time controls, but he won the match. In 1997, however, the computer, IBM's "Deep Blue," defeated him in a rematch (see also artificial intelligenceartificial intelligence
(AI), the use of computers to model the behavioral aspects of human reasoning and learning. Research in AI is concentrated in some half-dozen areas.
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). In 2000, Kasparov lost a match and his widely recognized status as the world's best chess master to his onetime protégé, the 25-year-old Russian Vladimir KramnikKramnik, Vladimir,
1975–, Russian chess player, b. Tuapse. Kramnik started to play chess at the age of four, and at eleven began studying with both Mikhail Botvinnik and Garry Kasparov.
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, but he subsequently was again regarded as the world's top player. A 2003 match with the chess program "Deep Junior" ended in a tie. One of the game's greatest players, Kasparov retired from professional chess in 2005 and subsequently devoted himself to political activities related to promoting democracy in Russia; he has been assaulted and arrested several times. In 2007 he sought to run for the Russian presidency but was barred because a registered political party had not nominated him; he subsequently withdrew, suggesting that attempts to meet the alternative requirements were frustrated by government interference. Having unsuccessfully sought Latvian citizenship in 2013, he became a Croatian citizen in 2014. He and his family have lived primarily in New York City since 2005. Kasparov's book Winter Is Coming (2015) reflects his fierce oppositiion to Vladimir PutinPutin, Vladimir Vladimirovich
, 1952–, Russian government official and political leader, b. Leningrad (now St. Petersburg). After graduating from the Leningrad State Univ.
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 and accuses the West, and particularly the United States, of appeasement in allowing Putin to remain in power.


See his autobiography, World of Change (1987), and his How Life Imitates Chess (2007).

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References in periodicals archive ?
Chess star Gary Kasparov Ali standing over Sonny Liston
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Gary Kasparov, 47, is a Russian Chess Grandmaster and widely held to be the greatest chess player of all time.
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Gary Kasparov, a former world chess champion and Other Russia leader who had vowed to carry out Sunday's protest despite the authorities denying permission for it, said the group's co-leader was one of those held.
Of the legendary matches between global icon Gary Kasparov and "Deep Blue"--the most formidable chess computer ever, he shrugs, "the fact the Kasparov even won once, is unbelievable."
However, Gary Kasparov, former world chess champion and leader of the Other Russia coalition, noted recently that the same Mugabe critics hypocritically ignore similar abuses by Russia's Putin and Medvedev.
"Fischer could be called a pioneer of professional chess, some would say even the founder of professional chess," former world champion GARY KASPAROV said, lamenting that he had never met his childhood hero.
There have been so many pundits predicting an encounter akin to a chess match that it would not come as a major surprise if Gary Kasparov was pictured alongside compatriot Roman Abramovich as the evening's guest of honour.