Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos


Also found in: Wikipedia.
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
Birthday
BirthplaceGijón, Asturias, Spain
Died
Occupation
Author, Philosopher

Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchor de

 

Born Jan. 5, 1744, in Gijón; died Nov. 27, 1811, in Vega, Asturias. Spanish state and political figure who typified the Spanish Enlightenment; poet, playwright, economist, philosopher, and historian.

Jovellanos was the son of an impoverished nobleman. From 1767 to 1774 he served as a member of the Superior Appellate Council in Seville. After moving to Madrid in 1778, he was elected to the Royal Academy of History, as well as the royal academies of art, language, and law. From 1778 to 1790 he was a member of the tribunal of the Superior Council of Castile.

Having become a close associate of P. Campomanes, the Count of Floridablanca, and other prominent state figures, Jovellanos helped institute a number of reforms in the spirit of enlightened absolutism. He took part in the work of the “economic societies of friends of the people,” which had been created by Campomanes. In 1795 he published the draft of an agrarian law aimed at limiting large-scale land ownership, protecting small-scale peasant landowners, and gradually freeing the Spanish economy from feudalism. Jovellanos’ economic views were close to those of the physiocrats, and he shared the views of A. Smith on the labor theory of value.

As an opponent of the forces of reaction that supported feudalism and clericalism, Jovellanos was subjected to persecution. Alarmed by the bourgeois revolution that had begun in France, the Spanish ruling circles adopted a reactionary policy; Jovellanos was released from all his posts and sent to Asturias in 1790 “to study its natural resources.” In 1797 and 1798, Jovellanos served as minister of justice. After speaking out against the Inquisition and the privileges of the clergy, he was again sent to Asturias. In 1801 he was arrested and imprisoned in a fortress on the island of Mallorca.

Jovellanos was set free in 1808, and during the Spanish Revolution of 1808–14 he served as a member of the Central Junta, within which he headed the liberal minority. With indignation he rejected an invitation from Joseph Bonaparte to occupy the position of minister of internal affairs in Bonaparte’s government.

Jovellanos was the author of the patriotic poem “Asturian Military Song” (1808), the classical tragedy Munusa (1780), and the petit bourgeois drama The Noble Criminal (1774).

WORKS

Obras publicadas e inéditas, vols. 1–2. Madrid, 1951–52.
Diarios, vols. 1–3. Oviedo, 1953–56.

REFERENCES

Marx, K. “Revoliutsionnaia Ispaniia.” In K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 10. Pages 441–46.
García Puertas, M. Jovellanos. Montevideo, 1954.
Dotor Municio, A. Jovellanos. Madrid, 1964.
Caso Gonzales, J. M. La poética de Jovellanos. [Madrid] 1972.

E. E. LITAVRINA

References in periodicals archive ?
3) Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, Informe sobre la ley agraria (Madrid: Imprenta de I Sanchez: 1820).
Pruebas de ello encontramos en la Historia de Aliaga y su encomienda sanjuanista, publicado por el Ayuntamiento de esta localidad (1989), donde ejercio como maestro de educacion primaria; la edicion y estudio del texto de Isidoro de Antillon y Marzo, Noticias historicas de don Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, editado por la Universidad de Valencia en 1996; Obispos nacidos en Teruel y provincia (s.
The painting depicts a tormented Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos laying his head on a desk that reads: "the dream of reason produces monsters.
Primera de las cuatro mujeres con el Cervantes en decir un discurso desde el pulpito del Paraninfo (rodeado en los bordes del techo con nombres de una doce na de destacados hombres de letras: San Juan de la Cruz, fray Bartolome de Carranza, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos .
Es, precisamente, esa parte la que constituye el nucleo de todo el apartado de las controversias; no en vano, la publicacion de la obra de Huerta implico a escritores de la talla de Felix Maria Samaniego, Tomas de Iriarte, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos o Leandro Fernandez de Moratin, amen de algun ingenio extranjero.
El capitulo cinco realiza un relevante rastreo de las ideas ilustradas que reproducian los redactores de la Gazeta de Buenos Ayres, haciendo especial hincapie en que no eran propuestas "originales", sino que, en la mayoria de los casos analizados, remitian a las ideas de Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (1744-1811) y Jose Maria Blanco White (1775-1841), cuyos articulos fueron divulgados por este periodico, aunque generalmente no se citaron sus nombres.
1794 El politico y pensador Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos difunde desde Espana sus ideas ilustradas--sobre todo en lo que respecta a la educacion--en el Nuevo Continente.
1) el folleto titulado Pan y Toros, atribuido Gaspar Melchor de JOVELLANOS y 2) La Tauromaquia de Francisco Montes, Paquiro, atribuida a Santos LOPEZ PELEGRIN, Abenamar (y tambien a otros).
Este es Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, escritor, historiador, poeta, politico y educador; este es el lider de la Espana ilustrada, de la causa por la superacion nacional.
Manuel Godoy, the 'Maecaenas' of the Spanish court, Carlos IV and Maria Luisa, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos and Fernand Guillemardet, all of whom generally feature in Goya historiography as shadowy caricatures, now emerge in the round, distinctly human in their fallibility.
The figure of Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos looms large over the Spanish eighteenth century, due in no small part to his vast and varied literary production.
Solo tres gijoneses ingresaron en alguno de los colegios mayores espanoles, y uno de ellos fue Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, colegial del de San Ildefonso, que fue el unico representante de estas familias en la alta Administracion borbonica.