Expression and processing of gastrin
in hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma.
This may be due to increased gastrin
secretion, parietal cell hyperplasia or upregulation of proton pump activity.
and colorectal cancer: a prospective study.
Lung cancers exhibit higher expression and content of gastrin
and its receptors are akin to the upregulation of gastrin
biosynthesis already described for gastric cancers and colorectal cancers (1).
Foster et al., "Targeting of CCK-2 receptor-expressing tumors using a radiolabeled divalent gastrin
peptide," Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol.
Tumour Age to Biochemical test Imaging test begin(y) annually (Time interval) Parathyroid 8 Calcium, PTH None Pancreas 20 Gastrin
None Gastrinoma Insulinoma 5 Fasting glucose, None Insulin Other <10 Chromogranin-A, MRI, CT or pancreatic NET PP, glucagon, VIP endoscopic US Pituitary 5 Prolactin, IGF-1 MRI (every 3 y) Adrenal 19 None unless >1cm lesion or MRI or CT symptoms Thymic and 15 None CT or MRI(1-2y) bronchial carcinoid
Plasma fasting gastrin
and glucagon levels were within normal ranges.
The possible mechanisms involved in this process include decreased pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon, cholecystokinin, gastrin
and gastrointestinal hormone levels, D cell damage reduction and improved somatostatin synthesis and release.
It is important to mention that ghrelin plasma levels may be affected by other hormones, such as gastrin
and leptin (27,38), and especially by age, as reported by Nouh et al.
NETs lead to increased hormone production which most commonly can result in low blood sugar if too much insulin is produced, high blood sugar if too much glucagon is produced, and gastric ulcers if too much gastrin
pylori strains have been shown to affect the secretion of several hormones, including 5-HT, ghrelin, dopamine, and gastrin
, and altered levels of these hormones might be the cause of the psychological disorders of functional dyspepsia patients.
Further investigations were also positive for intrinsic factor-blocking antibodies and an elevated gastrin
level consistent with a diagnosis of pernicious anemia.