Gastroenterology


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Wikipedia.
Related to Gastroenterology: hepatology

gastroenterology

[¦ga·strō‚ent·ə′räl·ə·jē]
(medicine)
The branch of medicine concerned with study of the stomach and intestine.

Gastroenterology

 

the field in medicine devoted to the structure and function of the human digestive system under normal and pathological conditions, in which the causes and mechanisms of the development of various diseases of the digestive organs are studied and new methods for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these diseases are devised.

Diseases of the digestive organs have been known since remote antiquity, but information about the structure of the digestive system was primitive and inaccurate. The teachings of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates (470-377 B.C.) on curative diet were valuable for the development of knowledge in gastroenterology. The introduction in the 18th century of research in pathological anatomy by the Italian scientist G. B. Morgagni had great importance in the development of gastroenterology. Gastroenterology was finally formed into an independent science in the first half of the 19th century when, as a result of the studies in pathological anatomy by the Austrian scientist K. von Rokitansky, the French scientist J. Cruveilhier, and others, there appeared a systematic description of many diseases of the digestive organs (ulcers and cancer of the stomach, cirrhosis of the liver, etc.). The French clinicians R. Laennec, G. Dieulafoy, V. C. Hanot, and others made an important contribution to the development of gastroenterology. With the introduction into clinical practice of the thick probe in 1867 by the German clinician A. Kussmaul and of the fine probe in 1911 by the German physician M. Einhorn and V. Lyon (USA), the possibilities of studying the secretory and acid-producing functions of the stomach and also of the pathological condition of the bile ducts greatly increased. The development of roentgenologic methods of investigation made it possible to ascertain pathological changes in all of the digestive organs.

The instrumental methods of examination used in contemporary clinical practice (gastroscopy, esophagoscopy, laparoscopy, rectoromanoscopy, radioisotope indication [methods], and radiotelemetry) have considerably expanded diagnostic possibilities in gastroenterology. Developments in chemistry have facilitated the detailed study of the enzymatic functions of the digestive system.

As a result of the work of I. P. Pavlov and his school, the contemporary physiology of digestion came into being; it has exerted a decisive influence on the development of gastroenterology throughout the world. S. P. Botkin’s theory of nervism (mid-19th century), the method of anamnesis devised by G. A. Zakhar’in, and the method of palpation (feeling) of the organs of the abdominal cavity devised by A. P. Obraztsov (beginning of 20th century) and perfected by his school exerted a great influence on the development of gastroenterology.

The major thrust of gastroenterology in the USSR is social and preventive. Health-center care for patients with gastroenterological diseases, the creation of specialized wards for these patients and wards for abdominal surgery, and the care provided by health resorts and sanatoriums guarantee success in the battle against diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The study of gastroenterological problems is based on research in physiology, morphology, microbiology, chemistry, radiology, and clinical disciplines (therapeutics, surgery, and pediatrics). Included among Soviet scientists that have made great contributions to the development of gastroenterology are M. P. Konchalovskii, N. D. Strazhesko, R. A. Luria, M. I. Pevzner, A. L. Miasnikov, E. M. Tareev, V. Kh. Vasilenko, N. I. Leporskii, N. V. Konovalov, M. M. Gubergrits, I. P. Razenkov, M. N. Shaternikov, S. A. Kholdin, S. P. Fedorov, S. A. Reinberg, Iu. N. Sokolov, and B. V. Petrovskii.

Organizations that have been created in this field include the All-Union and All-Russian Problems Commission on the Physiology and Pathology of Digestion, the All-Union Scientific Society of Gastroenterologists, and scientific research institutes in Moscow, Dnepropetrovsk, and Dushanbe. The problems and the results of research in gastroenterology are published in journals, including Terapevticheskii arkhiv (since 1923), Klinicheskaia meditsina (since 1920), Sovetskaia meditsina (since 1937), Vrachebnoe delo (since 1918), and Khirurgiia (since 1931). Abroad, research in gastroenterology is published in journals including Archives français des maladies de l’appareil digestif (Paris, 1907—), Medizinische Klinik (Berlin, 1904—), Gut (London, 1960—), American Journal of Gastroenterology (New York, 1934—), American Journal of Proctology (New York, 1950—), Acta gastro-enterologica belgica (Brussels, 1933—), Digestion: International Journal of Gastroenterology (Basel-New York, 1895—).

The Association of National European and Mediterranean Societies of Gastro-Enterology and the World Association of Gastroenterologists coordinate research in gastroenterology.

K. I. SHIROKOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
This fact is recognized by the college and the Pakistan Society of Gastroenterology and GI Endoscopy.
KEY WORDS: Science Citation Index, Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mainland China, Bibliometrics, Web of Science.
The Winchester Endoscopy Center, which was approved by the State of Illinois to begin treating patients in January 2016, will provide a full suite of gastroenterology services to the community in a high quality low cost setting.
This meeting will provide all participants a forum to exchange latest medical information, skill and knowledge particularly in the discipline of gastroenterology.
On a yearly basis, the hospital conducts more than 7,000 gastroenterology procedures, these include in-patient and out-patient procedures.
I have been a member of NZNO's gastroenterology nurses' section for many years and have observed all the hard work put in by previous committee members.
Robert Auerbach, senior vice president and chief medical officer at CooperSurgical, said the deal will enable the firm to consolidate its position in women's health while allowing Nexcore to expand available technology in the gastroenterology field.
In the last week of the holy month of Ramadan and during the Eid holidays, KIMS is offering free Gastroenterology consultations by Dr.
The first specialist gastroenterology care centre in the UK is being built at Newport's pounds 100m Celtic Springs Business Park.
The investigators analyzed data on new outpatient consultations and initial admissions over a 3-month period for 179 patients in the hepatology section and 179 patients in the gastroenterology section, who were followed for 12 months.
Chalmers Nunn, MD, MMM, CPE, FACPE is CEO and managing partner of Gastroenterology Associates of Central Virginia in Lynchburg, Va.
After completing residency training with New York Methodist (Cornell University) and a gastroenterology fellowship from Kaiser-UCLA program, Pruthi moved to Antelope Valley Hospital.