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(hĕm`ərĭj), escape of blood from the circulation (arteries, veins, capillaries) to the internal or external tissues. The term is usually applied to a loss of blood that is copious enough to threaten health or life. Slow bleeding may lead to anemiaanemia
, condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions
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, while the sudden loss of a large amount of blood may cause shockshock,
any condition in which the circulatory system is unable to provide adequate circulation to the body tissues, also called circulatory failure or circulatory collapse. Shock results in the slowing of vital functions and in severe cases, if untreated, in death.
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. Hemorrhage from a cerebral artery can be fatal because of interference with brain function. Many diseases and disorders (e.g., hemophilia, hemorrhagic fevers, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, scurvy, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever) as well as childbirth and many injuries can give rise to hemorrhage. Internal hemorrhage may require surgical intervention. See first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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escape of blood from blood vessels that have been injured as a result of trauma or vascular disease.

Hemorrhages may be arterial (scarlet blood spurts like a fountain), venous (a flow of dark blood), capillary, or mixed. The intensity of bleeding depends on the size of the injured vessel and the condition of its wall. Blood may flow to the outside, into the lumen or body of an organ (stomach, intestine, brain), or into a cavity (abdominal, pleural). Bleeding is accompanied by pallor of the skin and mucosa, dizziness, weakness, dyspnea, thirst, a drop in arterial pressure, and a weak and rapid pulse. A large and rapid blood loss (25 percent of the blood volume or 4—4.5 percent of the body weight) produces loss of consciousness and may result in death. Persons weakened by a disease can be severely affected by even a small blood loss. In persons with atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, bleeding continues longer and is more difficult to stop. Bleeding in hemophilia patients, which arises when there is the slightest trauma, is extremely persistent.

Measures for stopping bleeding depend on its cause and source. Arrest of bleeding may be temporary or permanent. For temporarily stopping bleeding, a tourniquet, or pressure bandage, is applied to the extremities; vasoconstrictors, ice, or hemo-static sponges (on wounds) are also used. These measures often lead to complete cessation of bleeding; if bleeding does not stop it becomes necessary to resort to surgical methods (ligation of the vessel, suturing, removal of the injured or affected organ or of part of it) to achieve permanent cessation of bleeding. Blood transfusion or transfusion of blood substitutes that increase blood coagulation is a necessary part of treatment to control hemorrhage.



The escape of blood from the vascular system.


(US), hemorrhage
profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels
References in periodicals archive ?
Dieulafoy's Lesion: A Rare Location for Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage.
5 have also documented increased risk of gastrointestinal hemorrhage with CCBs.
In the meantime, one patient experienced a gastrointestinal hemorrhage (6 days after IRE; Grade 3) and presented with tarry stool; this was managed medically with short-term administration of hemostasis drugs and was likely related to the IRE procedure since the ablation zone covered the duodenal wall.
Risk factors and the role of bedside colonoscopy for lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in critically ill patients.
Infection is found with a rate of 47% in patients with cirrhosis and 66% in patients with liver disease who have gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
A prospective study of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Acute massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage associated with pancreatic heterotopic tissue of the stomach.
A tumour nodule within the jejunal mesentery had eroded into the bowel lumen, and was associated with distal gastrointestinal hemorrhage (the cause of the melena).
A cohort study (with re-sampled comparator groups) to measure the association between new NSAID prescribing and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and perforation.
Among the nine IQIs, as the percentage of black discharges increased, the rate of inpatient mortality increased for CABG, craniotomy, hip replacement, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hip fracture, and pneumonia; however, the rate of inpatient mortality decreased for abdominal aortic aneurysm, congestive heart failure, and acute stroke.
Those procedures were heart attack, congestive heart failure, balloon angioplasty, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, heart bypass surgery, hip fracture, pneumonia and stroke.
A death certificate filed in court listed the cause of death as cardiac arrest due to complications of chronic liver failure with carcinoma of the liver and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

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