Clarisse Herrenschmidt and Jean Kellens,22 23 24 25 without accepting Burrow's "Proto-Indoaryan" theory, likewise doubted that daeuuas were part of the religious scene in Iran at the time when the Gathas
The songs in the Gatha
have a monotheistic theme and show a distinct difference in their forms as well as their meanings from the rest of the Avesta owing to the fact that the faith and its followers went through different political, social, religious, and cultural stages over fourteen centuries.
One should be reminded of the fact that Ahura Mazda in the Gathas
of Zarathushtra and all the Avestan scriptures is never envisaged in any physical form; only He is to be realized in mind.
Thus, as a result of their intellectual capacities, human beings have freedom to choose, 'man forman,' as it says in the Gathas
, must make up his or her own mind and decide whether or not to support Ahura Mazda.
Every single Jataka consists of the following parts: (a) an introductory story (paccuppannavatthu)--"story of the present time", narrating on what occasion the Buddha related to the monks the story in question, (b) Atitavatthu--"the story of the past"--the core story, the story about one of the experiences about the former births of the Buddha, (c) the Gathas
the stanzas "the story of the past" and also a part of "the story of the present time", (d) short commentary in which the Gathas
are explained literally, and (e)--Samodhana, in which the personages of "the story of the present" are linked with the those of "the story of the past.
One set of central texts, the Gathas
or "songs", are considerably older than other texts in these scriptures, and have only recently been convincingly dated to c.
Yet, the Buddha continues; if a noble son or daughter were to grasp one of the four-line gathas
in this Dharma teaching, their merit would be immeasurably and infinitely greater.
7) The book he wrote on the subject (1843) was unfortunately based mainly on the Avestan book of Vendidad, whereas later scholars showed that the most authentic teachings of Zoroaster are in the Gathas
Religious poetry was the vehicle for transmission; and the chief literary monuments marking this transmission are the Shih Ching, the Yashts and the Gathas
in the Avesta, and the De Judicio Domini together with the Medieval hymnology that it influenced.
It is generally agreed that the Gathas
(a section within the Yasna) represent the oldest part of the Avesta, dating possibly as early as the period of Zoroaster.
The monks at Plum Village teach that gathas
are to be recited at key moments during the day - when waking up, during meals, while walking or doing common chores.
It is only a fragment, consisting of five parts: (1) the Yasna, the chief liturgical portion, including Gathas
, or hymns; (2) the Vispered, another liturgical work; (3) the Vendidad, which, like the biblical Pentateuch, contains the laws; (4) the Yashts, dealing with stories of the different gods; (5) the Khordah, a book of private devotions.