The standard model of the constituent parts of matter that started with Dalton's theory of indivisible atoms grew to the generation of the elementary particles of protons, neutrons and electrons and finally to the latest generation model of two broad categories of particles (fermions that include quarks, compound protons and electrons) and gauge bosons
. Fermions constitute the matter in the universe and the gauge bosons
carry various forces or interactions.
This symmetry breaking pattern generates mass to all SM fermions and gauge bosons
. We highlight that, due to the enlarged gauge group, 3-3-1 models feature five new gauge bosons
Lagrangian of the gauge bosons
in the B-L model is generally given by
Based on Table 3, Figure 3 shows the distribution of mesons, but Figure 4 shows the distribution of baryons, mesons, leptons and gauge bosons
over the 1/4 logarithmic S-intervals in the range of 0 to 12 logarithmic units.
where [M.sub.W] and [M.sub.Z] are the gauge bosons
The Weak and the Strong geometric coupling constant strength, defined as the probability for a particle to emit and later absorb a SU(2), SU(3) gauge boson
, can both be obtained by using the main formula derived from Geometric Probability (as ratios of dimensionless measures/volumes) after one identifies the suitable homogeneous domains and their Shilov boundaries to work with.
The interaction between a spin-1/2 excited lepton, a gauge boson
(V = y, Z, [W.sup.[+ or -]] , and the SM leptons is described by SU(2) x U(1) invariant Lagrangian [4,27,28] as
We have investigated the CP-conserving dimension-6 operators of Higgs boson with other SM gauge bosons
via [e.sup.+][e.sup.-] [right arrow] [nu][bar.[nu]]H process using an effective Lagrangian approach at first energy stage of CLIC ([square root of s] = 380 GeV, [L.sub.int] = 500 [fb.sup.-1]).
where [t.sub.iS] and [t.sub.iV] represent the matrix representations due to broken generators of scalars and gauge bosons
. The term [[??].sub.Sj] denotes the projection operator that removes the Goldstone components from the scalars contributing to spontaneous symmetry breaking.
Two of these particles are gauginos, fermionic superpartners of the SM gauge bosons
. The bino, [??], in particular, is the partner of the U(1) gauge boson
, while the neutral wino, [??], is the partner of the SU(2) gauge boson
As expected, there is no dimension-4 coupling of [eta] to the [SU(2).sub.L] gauge bosons
, but there are higher order terms involving [eta] which could modify the hWW coupling if [eta] gets a VEV.
The hidden sector is coupled to the standard model (SM) via the "Higgs-portal" mechanism due to the [phi] mixing with the SM Higgs boson h and also via the loop-level couplings of [phi] to two gluons and [phi] to two hypercharge gauge bosons
induced by U.