For a Gaussian beam
of radius [r.sub.0] and wavelength [lambda] passing through a lens with the focal length of f, the spot size is inversely proportional to the NA :
Here, we choose the spheroid to represent the nonspherical mineral aerosol in order to study the scattering cross sections of nonspherical particles within the Gaussian beam
Figure 9 shows MPM images of autofluorescent features of the dermal part of human skin at two different tissue depths acquired using both annular and Gaussian beam
Souli, "Scattering of an off-axis Gaussian beam
by a dielectric cylinder compared with a rigorous electromagnetic approach," J.
Burkholder, "Novel Gaussian beam
method for the rapid analysis of large reflector antennas," IEEE Trans.
where [zeta] is the complex scalar function that defines the non-plane part of the Gaussian Beam
. Supposing the direction of propagation be in the positive Z orientation (shown in Figure 1), the fundamental Gaussian Beam
mode of E-field distribution with the paraxial approximation in rectangular coordinates (two dimension) is shown in Equation (2):
Cerny, "Near field measurement of Gaussian beam
behind dielectric lens," 17th International Conference in Radioelektronika, 1-4, Apr.
As optical systems shrink to approach wavelength-scale structures, the Gaussian beam
summation model breaks down, and conventional ray-tracing engines become increasingly less able to accurately predict the kind of behavior seen in micro-optical systems.
The lasers demonstrate perfect Gaussian beam
profile and low optical noise of <1.50.
C[O.sub.2]-RF lasers have a Gaussian beam
, high repetition rate and low energy per pulse, making them ideal for delivery through galvanometer beam steering system.
The waist of the Gaussian beam
, where the wavefront is flat, is located as close as possible to the mirror surface.
The trick is to shape the plate and electrodes to generate a single, Gaussian beam
rather than multiple beams.