For a

Gaussian beam of radius [r.sub.0] and wavelength [lambda] passing through a lens with the focal length of f, the spot size is inversely proportional to the NA [70]:

Here, we choose the spheroid to represent the nonspherical mineral aerosol in order to study the scattering cross sections of nonspherical particles within the

Gaussian beam incidence.

Figure 9 shows MPM images of autofluorescent features of the dermal part of human skin at two different tissue depths acquired using both annular and

Gaussian beam illumination.

Souli, "Scattering of an off-axis

Gaussian beam by a dielectric cylinder compared with a rigorous electromagnetic approach," J.

Burkholder, "Novel

Gaussian beam method for the rapid analysis of large reflector antennas," IEEE Trans.

where [zeta] is the complex scalar function that defines the non-plane part of the

Gaussian Beam. Supposing the direction of propagation be in the positive Z orientation (shown in Figure 1), the fundamental

Gaussian Beam mode of E-field distribution with the paraxial approximation in rectangular coordinates (two dimension) is shown in Equation (2):

Cerny, "Near field measurement of

Gaussian beam behind dielectric lens," 17th International Conference in Radioelektronika, 1-4, Apr.

As optical systems shrink to approach wavelength-scale structures, the

Gaussian beam summation model breaks down, and conventional ray-tracing engines become increasingly less able to accurately predict the kind of behavior seen in micro-optical systems.

The lasers demonstrate perfect

Gaussian beam profile and low optical noise of <1.50.

C[O.sub.2]-RF lasers have a

Gaussian beam, high repetition rate and low energy per pulse, making them ideal for delivery through galvanometer beam steering system.

The waist of the

Gaussian beam, where the wavefront is flat, is located as close as possible to the mirror surface.

The trick is to shape the plate and electrodes to generate a single,

Gaussian beam rather than multiple beams.