Geldern


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Geldern

 

(Dutch, Gelre), a medieval county (after the 11th century), later a duchy (after 1339) in northwestern Europe. From 1472 to 1477, Geldern belonged to the dukes of Burgundy, and in 1543 it became part of the Netherlands possessions of the Hapsburgs. During the Netherlands Bourgeois Revolution of the 16th century, Northern, or Lower, Geldern joined the Republic of the United Provinces. (This part of Geldern is now a province of the Netherlands—Gelderland.) Southern, or Upper, Geldern remained part of the southern (Spanish) Netherlands. In 1713 (finally in 1814-15), a large part of the duchy went to Prussia. (It is now a state in the Federal Republic of Germany—Nordrhein-Westfalen, and its administrative center is Geldern.) A small part of Upper Geldern is now in the Netherlands (part of Limburg Province).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Like James von Geldern, Malysheva sees the November 1920 re-enactment in Petrograd of the storming of the Winter Palace as a crucial moment: thus was the myth of October cleared of anything extraneous.
(10) James yon Geldern, Bolshevik Festivals, 1917-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993); Karen Petrone, Life Has Become More Joyous, Comrades: Celebrations in the Time of Stalin (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000); Malte Roll, Das sowjetische Massenfest (Hamburg: Hamburger Edition, 2006)--the last reviewed in Kritika 9, 2 (2008): 472-80.
There is also a substantial literature on state festivals: see, e.g., James von Geldern, Bolshevik Festivals, 1917-1921 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993); Malte Rolf, Sovetskii massovyiprazdnik v Voronezhe i Tsentral'no-Chernozemnoi oblasti (1927-1932) (Voronezh: Izdatel'stvo Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2000); Karen Petrone, Life Has Become More Joyous, Comrades: Celebrations in the Time of Stalin (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000); and Svetlana Malysheva, Sovetskaia prazdnichnaia kul'tura v provintsii: Prostranstvo, simvoly, istoricheskie mify (1917-1927) (Kazan: Ruten, 2005).
(6) James von Geldern, Bolshevik Festivals, 1917-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993); Christel Lane, The Rites of Rulers: Ritual in Industrial Society.
According to James von Geldern, tsarist celebrations were traditionally composed of two elements, a dynastic observance and popular entertainment: "solemnity and merriment stood side by side." Bolshevik festivals evolved into a similar pattern by late 1918.