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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



disperse systems with a liquid or gaseous dispersion medium, having some properties of solids—the ability to preserve their shape, strength, elasticity, and plasticity. These properties of gels are due to the existence in them of a structural network (framework) formed by the disperse-phase particles, which are interconnected by molecular forces of various types.

Typical gels in the form of gelatinous precipitates (coagels) are formed from sols by coagulation or from supersaturated solutions of both low-molecular-weight and macromolecular substances by phase-separation processes. Gels with an aqueous dispersion medium are known as hydrogels; those with a hydrocarbon medium are known as organogels. The hardening of sols throughout their entire volume without the separation of a precipitate or the disturbance of their homogeneity gives so-called lyogels. The entire dispersion medium in these gels is immobilized because of mechanical occlusion within the cells of the structural network. The greater the particle asymmetry, the lower the disperse-phase content at which a gel is formed. For a hydrosol of vanadium pentoxide, 0.05 percent of the disperse phase is sufficient for the production of hardening. In other cases, a few volume percent of the disperse phase produces the same effect.

Lyogels exhibit low strength and plasticity and some elasticity and thixotropy (the ability to restore their structure after disturbance by mechanical action). Gels of soap and soaplike surface-active materials, as well as of hydroxides of many polyvalent metals, are of this type. Aerogels, or xerogels, which are microporous systems devoid of plasticity and having a brittle, irreversibly destructible structure, are produced by drying lyogels. Common sorbents are produced in this way: alumogel from aluminum hydroxide gel and silica gel from silicic-acid coagels.

Gels are frequently equated with gelatins. The latter, however, are single-phase (homogeneous) systems—true solutions of organic or inorganic polymers in low-molecular-weight liquids. In the area of chemistry and technology of synthetic resins, the infusible and insoluble solid (brittle) or semisolid (elastic-viscous plastic) products of condensation polymerization or polymerization are traditionally called gels. The three-dimensional network in these systems consists of a continuous structure of chemically bonded macromolecules.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nijenhuis, "Crosslink nature in Cr(III)-polyacrylamide gels," Macromolecular Symposia, vol.
The storage modulus of a firm gel is independent of the frequency of the vibration, making it an effective encapsulant to dampen vibration in most applications.
The design of the flutes and the undercut between the mixing flight and the main flight are key design parameters for mitigating gels in polyolefin applications.
Ueno-Nishio, "Collapse of gels in an electric field," Science, vol.
A simplified ultrasensitive silver stain for detecting proteins in polyacryamide gels. Anal Biochem 1980; 105(2): 361-3.
The most common source of these background gels is stagnant regions at the flight radii.
Above the sol-gel transition point of UPE-5 (115[degrees]C), LDPE in UL-10 showed no contribution to the modulus of gels due to its low molecular weight compared with UPE, thus UL-10 exhibited similar values of G' and G" as UPE-5.
With growing research in the use of radio sensitive gels, dose distribution behind high atomic number heterogeneities have been estimated to imitate the presence of bones.17 Recent studies indicated attempts to manufacture gel dosimeters to simulate lung tissues either by producing foam of gel or by introducing polystyrene beads into gel mixture.18
She added that the trust had to balance the risk of patients drinking the hand gel with the need to provide dispensers so that patients' visitors and staff can clean their hands.
AUBIN, a leading independent supplier of specialist chemicals to the energy industry, is launching a new gel installation system for the oil and gas market in the Middle East at this year's Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference (Adipec).