Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

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Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

the German sociologist TÖNNIES’ (1887) twin IDEAL-TYPE concepts referring to contrasting types of social relationship and, by extension, types of society. Gemeinschaft (usually translated as ‘community’) refers to relationships which are spontaneous and ‘affective’, tend to be related to a person's overall social status, are repeated or long-enduring (as in relationships with kin), and occur in a context involving cultural homogeneity. Characteristically, these are the relationships within families and within simpler, small-scale and premodern societies, including peasant societies. Gesellschaft (usually translated as ‘association’) refers to relationships which are individualistic, impersonal, competitive, calculative and contractual, often employing explicit conceptions of rationality and efficiency. Relationships of this type are characteristic of modern urban industrial societies in which the DIVISION OF LABOUR is advanced. For Tönnies, such relationships involved a loss of the naturalness and mutuality of earlier Gemeinschaft relationships. See also COMMUNITY.

Tönnies derived aspects of his concept from Henry MAINE's distinction between status and contract. Compare also Max Weber's TYPES OF SOCIAL ACTION, Talcott Parsons’ PATTERN VARIABLES and Emile Durkheim's MECHANICAL AND ORGANIC SOLIDARITY. See also Herbert Spencer (MILITANT AND INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY) and Robert Redfield (RURAL-URBAN CONTINUUM).

References in periodicals archive ?
Este sociologo aleman elabora una teoria del cambio social apoyandose en una construccion historicista de la nocion gemeinschaft, o comunidad, enfrentado a la gesellschaft, o sociedad.
Civilta e la dove c'e comunita, Gemeinschaft. Di nuovo un problema terminologico.
Eine wissenschaftliche Gemeinschaft, vertreten durch deren Top-Peers im Herausgebergremium--das zugleich die Redaktionsarbeit abdeckte; 2.
With widespread industrialization and urbanization and the emergence of large work units and of course the spread of mass communications at the European stage last "Gemeinschaft" (rural community in particular) (2) to the "Gesselschaft" (society).
Das gelang zum ersten Mal und grundlegend bei den Romischen Vertragen von 1957, mit denen die Europaische Gemeinschaft ihr bis heute gultiges Format erhielt.
We will distinguish not only between Gemeinschaft (community) and Gesellschaft (society), but also between them and Freiwillige Gemeinschaft or, as Parcons calls it, Voluntary Community [1].
Her theory is based on concepts developed by the 19th-century German sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, who distinguished between two social systems: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft.
Los expertos invitados incluyen a Fernando Carrion (FLACSO Ecuador), German Correa (Comite Interministerial Ciudad y Territorio, Chile), Pia Rossetti (Intendencia Regional Metropolitana de Santiago), Patricio Lanfranco y Federico Allendes (Ciudad Viva, Santiago), Vikram Bhatt (McGill University), Ruben Pesci (Fundacion CEPA), Armin Grunwald y Dirk Heinrichs (FZK-Helmholz Gemeinschaft).
Bronfenbrenner's systems of development, as well as the social concept gemeinschaft, often translated "community" are part of the conceptual frame-work of this study.
The concern with social control seems more like a rearguard action by the ideologues of the old Gemeinschaft, the last stand of the traditionalists against the advance of Gesellschaft, with its social mobility and unsupervised subjects.
The introduction examines how the notion of an organic Gemeinschaft took hold in Weimar culture as a specifically German response to the modern crisis of identity.
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