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in the Gospel of St. Luke, kinsman of St. JudeJude, Saint,
or Saint Judas
[Jude is an English form to distinguish him from Judas Iscariot], in the New Testament, one of the Twelve Apostles, also called Thaddaeus. He is thought to have been the son or brother of St. James the Less.
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. The original does not specify the relationship.


1 Unnavigable river, 710 mi (1,143 km) long, rising in central N.Dak. and flowing across S.Dak. to the Missouri River at Yankton, S.Dak. Jamestown Dam on the river is an irrigation and flood control unit of the Missouri River basin projectMissouri River basin project,
comprehensive plan authorized in 1944 for the coordinated development of water resources of the Missouri River and its tributaries, draining an area of c.
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 of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The James is also known as the Jim River or the Dakota River. 2 River, 340 mi (547 km) long, formed in W central Va. by the union of the Jackson and Cowpasture rivers and winding E across Va. to enter Chesapeake Bay through Hampton Roads. One of Virginia's chief rivers, it is navigable for large ships to Richmond, c.100 mi (160 km) upstream; Norfolk, Newport News, and Portsmouth are large ports at its mouth. Its chief tributaries are the Appomattox and Chickahominy rivers. The James's upper course flows through scenic gorges in the Blue Ridge Mts. and the Piedmont; waterfalls and rapids provide power. English colonists founded Jamestown on the lower river in 1607. During the Civil War, Union forces used the river in vain attempts to capture Richmond (see Peninsular campaignPeninsular campaign,
in the American Civil War, the unsuccessful Union attempt (Apr.–July, 1862) to capture Richmond, Va., by way of the peninsula between the York and James rivers. The Plan

Early in 1862, Gen. George B.
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; Seven Days battlesSeven Days battles,
in the American Civil War, the week-long Confederate counter-offensive (June 26–July 2, 1862) near Richmond, Va., that ended the Peninsular campaign. After the battle of Fair Oaks the Union general George B.
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letter of the New Testament, traditionally classified among the Catholic, or General, Epistles. The James of its ascription is traditionally identified with St. James the Less. However, the name is more likely a pseudonym. The letter's diverse sayings and admonitions, some of which are recurrent, are interspersed with more lengthy discourses, e.g., on the relationship of faith and works, the need for curbing the tongue, and the danger of envy and ambition. There are many points of contact with sayings of Jesus recorded in the Synoptic Gospels—e.g., on oaths, on rich oppressors, and on loving one's neighbor. Martin Luther rejected James because it seemed to deny his interpretation of justification by faith and to argue instead that a person is justified by works. "Works" are faith in action, i.e., the expression of trust in God. For both James and Paul, loving one's neighbor fulfills the law. Scholars differ widely on the origins and date of the work.


See studies by D. J. Moo (1985) and R. P. Martin (1988).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



In England:

James I. Born June 19, 1566, in Edinburgh; died Mar. 27, 1625, in Theobolds Park. King of Scotland (as James VI) from 1567; king of England and Scotland from 1603. First monarch of the Stuart dynasty to rule in England. Son of Mary Stuart.

James I ascended the English throne after the death of Elizabeth I, the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. He attempted to secure for the king the right to govern the country single-handedly, without Parliament. His absolutist policy, however, increasingly clashed with the interests of the English bourgeoisie and the new nobility and led to a rapid growth of parliamentary opposition. The reign of James I was marked by a growing religious intolerance toward the Puritans, the introduction of new taxes and forced loans, irregular convocation of Parliament, and a rapprochement with Catholic Spain, England’s main rival in sea and colonial trade. K. Marx called James I’s rule the prologue to the English Civil War of 1642–52 (Arkhiv Marksa i Engel’sa, vol. 8, 1946, p. 95).

James II. Born Oct. 14, 1633, in London; died Sept. 5, 1701, in St. Germain-en-Laye, France. King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1685 to 1688. A member of the Stuart dynasty. Second son of Charles I; brother of Charles II.

James II pursued a feudal, absolutist, reactionary policy, and he strengthened the position of the Catholic Church in Great Britain. In 1685 he disbanded Parliament and assumed absolute power. In 1687 he issued the Declaration of Indulgence, which cleared the way for the establishment of Catholicism as the state religion. He removed Anglicans from the most important government posts and appointed Catholics to fill their places.

The opposition forces consolidated in reaction to James IPs policies and, under the pretext of protecting Protestantism, offered the English crown to James’ son-in-law, the stadtholder of the Netherlands, William of Orange. In December 1688, after William’s army had landed in England, James II fled abroad.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


1. Henry 1843--1916, British novelist, short-story writer, and critic, born in the US Among his novels are Washington Square (1880), The Portrait of a Lady (1881), The Bostonians (1886), The Wings of the Dove (1902), The Ambassadors (1903), and The Golden Bowl (1904)
2. Jesse (Woodson). 1847--82, US outlaw
3. P(hyllis) D(orothy), Baroness James of Holland Park. born 1920, British detective novelist. Her books include Death of an Expert Witness (1977), Original Sin (1994), and Death in Holy Orders (2001)
4. William, brother of Henry James. 1842--1910, US philosopher and psychologist, whose theory of pragmatism is expounded in Essays in Radical Empiricism (1912). His other works include The Will to Believe (1897), The Principles of Psychology (1890), and The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902)
5. New Testament
a. known as James the Great. one of the twelve apostles, a son of Zebedee and brother to John the apostle (Matthew 4:21). Feast day: July 25 or April 30
b. known as James the Less. one of the twelve apostles, son of Alphaeus (Matthew 10:3). Feast day: May 3 or Oct. 9
c. known as James the brother of the Lord. a brother or close relative of Jesus (Mark 6:3; Galatians 1:19). Feast day: Oct. 23
d. the book ascribed to his authorship (in full The Epistle of James)


New Testament an epistle traditionally ascribed to James, a brother or close relative of Jesus (in full The Epistle of James)
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