General Genetics, Institute of

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

General Genetics, Institute of


(full name, Institute of General Genetics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR), a research institute engaged in the comprehensive investigation of genetics and the genetic basis of breeding.

The institute was established in Moscow in 1966 as a result of the consolidation of the Institute of Genetics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the radiation genetics laboratory of the Institute of Biophysics, also at the academy. In 1973 the institute comprised 18 laboratories and sections, where investigations of the mechanisms of mutation and the methods of controlling the mutation process were being carried out. Also under study were the molecular mechanisms of recombination, methods of genetic engineering, and the mechanisms of the genetic control of individual development and tissue incompatibility. Research was being done on the effects of spaceflight and outer space factors on genetics. The genetics and biology of natural populations in relation to the rational exploitation of the biosphere’s resources were other topics being studied in 1973, as were the applications of genetics to the breeding of crops and farm animals (which includes the study of inbreeding) and the genetic polymorphism of proteins as it concerns breed differences and productivity.

The institute has collections that include 400 strains of genetically marked bacterial and bacteriophage cultures, unicellular algae, Drosophila strains, and mutant strains of wheat and potato. The results of the institute’s research have found wide economic application. For example, the hybrid yeast no. 112 was introduced into the baking and alcohol industries, the highly productive and disease-resistant potato variety no. 390 was made available to several sovkhozes in the European USSR, and strains have been developed for producing heterotic sunflower varieties.

Scientists at the institute publish their findings in a number of journals, including Genetika, Doklady AN SSSR (Reports of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR), and Izvestiia AN SSSR (Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR). Their work is also covered in the periodical Uspekhi sovremennoi genetiki (Advances in Modern Genetics) and in monographs and collections. The institute has a graduate program and is authorized to accept candidates’ and doctoral dissertations for defense.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full browser ?