Generation of '98

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Generation of '98,

Spanish literary and cultural movement in the first two decades of the 20th cent. It was so named by Azorín (see Martínez Ruiz, JoséMartínez Ruiz, José
, 1873?–1967, Spanish writer. He often used the pseudonym Azorín. A political radical in the 1890s, he moved steadily to the right.
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) in 1913 to designate a group of young writers who, in the face of defeat (1898) in the Spanish-American War, proclaimed a moral and cultural rebirth for Spain. Azorín's original list included Valle InclánValle Inclán, Ramón del
, 1866–1936, Spanish writer, a member of the Generation of '98. Valle Inclán was deeply influenced by foreign literary trends, especially by modernismo.
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, UnamunoUnamuno, Miguel de
, 1864–1936, Spanish philosophical writer, of Basque descent, b. Bilbao. The chief Spanish philosopher of his time, he was professor of Greek at the Univ. of Salamanca and later rector there.
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, Benavente y MartínezBenavente y Martínez, Jacinto
, 1866–1954, Spanish dramatist, b. Madrid. He was awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize in Literature. His best-known play is Los intereses creados (1907, tr.
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, Baroja y NessiBaroja y Nessi, Pío
, 1879–1956, Spanish novelist from the Basque Provinces, member of the group of writers known as the Generation of '98. He left medicine to devote himself to literature and came to be the most popular Spanish novelist of the 20th cent.
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, Ramiro de Maeztu, DaríoDarío, Rubén
, 1867–1916, Nicaraguan poet, originally named Félix Rubén García Sarmiento. A child prodigy, he gained a thorough knowledge of Spanish and French cultures through reading; it was then widened during many years abroad in both
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, and Azorín himself. It has since been emended to include Ganivet and Antonio MachadoMachado, Antonio
, 1875–1939, Spanish poet of the Generation of '98. He spent most of his life in Castile and his best poetry was influenced by its sober and dramatic landscape. His Poesías completas appeared in 1936.
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, as well as Ortega y GassetOrtega y Gasset, José
, 1883–1955, Spanish essayist and philosopher. He studied in Germany and was influenced by neo-Kantian thought. He called his philosophy the metaphysics of vital reason, and he sought to establish the ultimate reality in which all else was
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, Pérez de AyalaPérez de Ayala, Ramón
, 1880?–1962, Spanish writer. He was educated at Jesuit schools, which he satirized in the novel A.M.D.G. (1910). His early realistic novels, among them The Fox's Paw (1912, tr. 1924), reveal ties with the Generation of '98.
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, and Marañón. Darío is more often considered as the founder of modernismomodernismo
, movement in Spanish literature that had its beginning in Latin America. It was paramount in the last decade of the 19th cent. and the first decade of the 20th cent.

Modernismo derived from French symbolism and the Parnassian school.
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. The group was concerned with defining the essential quality of Spain, studying its history and culture. In the austere life of Castile many of them discovered the key to the essence of Hispanicism. While they attacked aestheticism and the current adulation of the Austrian satiric poet Karl KrausKraus, Karl
, 1874–1936, Austrian essayist and poet, b. Bohemia. His satirical review the Fackel lashed out at hypocrisy, intellectual corruption, and the machine age. His voluminous works include Worte in Versen (9 vol., 1916–30, partial tr.
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, they also represented cosmopolitan trends, including political liberalism. They greatly influenced the work of later Spanish writers.
References in periodicals archive ?
The presence of this pessimism appears in the abulia or apathy from which many literary characters in the novels of the Generation of '98 suffer.
While Unamuno was not blind to Spain's shortcomings-indeed the Generation of '98 sought to rekindle what positive aspects it saw in the Spanish people in a period of national disgrace and spiritual decline--Goytisolo would seize these same problems and exaggerate them to fit his purposes in order to shake the very tenets of his patrimony.
Fernandez Cifuentes points to 1918 and Impresiones y paisajes as the site of rupture between the Generation of '98 writers, interested in the collective importance of history, and Lorca's cohort which placed greater emphasis on personal response.
In 1999, as Spaniards reflect on last century's Generation of '98 and the cataclysmic changes that have followed, historians and citizens still face questions about the struggles that pitted many Spains against each other.
In quest of the soul of Spain, Unamuno turns, as did other writers of the Generation of '98, to Castile, penetrating the overlays of false nationalism and dead traditions to find the eternal and genuinely pure Spain.
As a member of the Generation of '98, Baroja revolted against the stultifying aspects of Spanish life.
Marco's comparable attempt to link the earlier generation of composers whose most important figures were Falla, Joaquin Turina, Conrado del Campo, Jesus Guridi, Julio Gomez and Oscar Espla (and which, following established precedent, he labels the Generation of Maestros) with the group of writers known as the Generation of '98 (whose leading member was Antonio Machado) requires rather more latitude, being justified solely on the grounds of 'areas of common concern'.
Chapter 5 concentrates upon the generation of '98, with special reference to Unamuno, Minor y pedagogia, Baroja, El arbol de la ciencia, and Minor y ciencia, a play by Galdos of 1905.
Spanish essayist and novelist, considered a member (or, sometimes, a precursor) of the Generation of '98 because of his concern for the spiritual regeneration of his country.
References to other pre-1900 works not only reveal her consistency of attitude but also align her with some of the Generation of '98.
The term Generation of '98 was used loosely at the turn of the century but was elaborated on by the literary critic Azorin in critical essays that appeared in various periodicals.
The analytical depth and penetration of his criticism and his reforming zeal had a morally constructive emphasis; these qualities prompted the Generation of '98 to hail Larra as a forerunner.

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