Internet domain name

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Internet domain name

An Internet domain name is a unique name of an organization or person on the Internet. The name is combined with a generic top-level domain (gTLD), such as .com or .org. For example, computerlanguage.com is the domain name for the publisher of this encyclopedia. By 2019, there were more than 300 million registered domain names.

Under ICANN's "New gTLD" program, communities, industries and organizations can create their own top-level domain names (see New gTLD).

Registration Is Required
In order for a domain name to be visible on the Internet, it must first be registered with any one of hundreds of registrars, which will verify that the name is absolutely unique. See registrar.

Dub-Dub-Dub or Whatever
In order to access The Computer Language Company website, www.computerlanguage.com is typed into the browser's address bar (see URL). The WWW, often verbalized as "dub-dub-dub," is a mnemonic commonly used for the hostname of a company's Web server. However, WWW is only a recommendation, and Web servers can be assigned any hostname. In addition, most companies configure their Web servers to not require a hostname. For example, computerlanguage.com without the WWW is sufficient. See hostname and DNS.

Different mnemonics are also widely used to identify sections of a site; for example, support.computerlanguage.com could be a valid address, in which case the word SUPPORT could not be omitted when typing the name.

Generic Top-Level Domains


In 1985, the following generic top-level domains (gTLDs) were created.
Unrestricted gTLDs.com   commercial
 .net   network oriented
 .org   non-profit organization

  Restricted gTLDs.edu   accredited U.S. educational
 .gov   U.S. government agencies
 .mil   U.S. military
 .int   international treaties (1988)


More Domain Names
Starting in 2000, ICANN added more domains. Sponsored domains means that their use is reserved for a particular community, or registration is restricted to a certain type of applicant (see sTLD).

Sponsored Top-Level DomainssTLD    Purpose.aero    global aviation community
 .asia    Pan-Asia/Asia Pacific region
 .cat     Catalan community
 .coop    cooperatives
 .jobs    human resources/employment
 .mobi    mobile products/services
 .museum  museums
 .post    postal sector
 .pro     licensed professionals
 .tel     contacts (see  .tel)
 .travel  travel industry
 .xxx     X-rated


  Unsponsored Top-Level Domains.biz     businesses
 .info    information service
 .name    individuals


Countries Also Have Domain Names
Every country has a top-level domain; for example, .ca for Canada and .fr for France. The U.S. country code is .us, but it is not widely used. See country code, New gTLD, ICANN, IP address and FQDN.
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
ICANN's new program launches in 2012 and will allow parties to apply for any gTLD they wish, such as corporate-named specific generic top-level domain names (e.g., .mcdonalds or .macys).
Global internet hosts grew 33 percent to reach 540 million in January 2008 but over half of all hosts (287 million) had a generic top-level domain rather than one tied to a country code.This growth in the number of networks, and devices attached to those networks has led to a shortage of unique Internet addresses used to identify individual devices connected to the Internet.
Central to Virtual Countries' lawsuit was a press release that the Republic of South Africa issued in October 2000 announcing that it could be the first country in the world to claim the right to use its own domain name in the generic top-level domain of ".com." The release further stated that it intended soon to file an ownership claim to southafrica.com with the World Intellectual Property Organization, a United Nations agency that deals with intellectual property protection.
Most people are familiar with three generic top-level domain names: .com, .net, and .org, as well second-level domain names, such as .gov and .edu.
A group of companies and individuals involved in the Internet have put together a "generic top-level domain memorandum of understanding" (gTLD-MoU).
First, when a trademark owner launches a new generic top-level domain, the clearing house grants it priority to register the corresponding domain name (for example, when .shoes is launched, Nike would have priority to register the domain name nike.shoes).
Previously the Domain Name System was defined by only 22 net address extensions or generic top-level domain names ("gTLDs"), including the most popular '.com', '.net' and '.org)' and approximately 250 country code top level domains (such as '.ae' or '.qa').
The domain spat has erupted after ICANN launched a million-dollar programme to extend the generic top-level domain name catalogue (currently 22 suffixes that appear at the end of address after the dot', such as .com, .org, .gov and .info) by hundreds of new domain names, including .wine and .vin.
They included .bet, .islam, .gay and .news as alternatives to existing generic top-level domain (gTLD) names such as .com and .org.

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