Hua et al., "Inhomogeneous neuromuscular injury of the genioglossus muscle
in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea," Sleep and Breathing, vol.
It is believed that the suprahyoid electrical activity captured in the task of tongue lift against the palate differed between the posterior and anterior regions not only due to the difference in lingual muscle concentration, but also due to the presence of other muscles recruitment, such as the extrinsic ones of the tongue.The tongue pressure against the palate in the anterior region recruits more the genioglossus muscle
than the tongue pressure against the palate in the posterior region, position in which the styloglossus and palatoglossal muscles are activated.
 demonstrated that, after sleep onset, there was a greater decrease in genioglossus muscle
activity and a greater increase in UA resistance in men than in women, thereby increasing the susceptibility to UA occlusion.
Possible muscular injuries were a tear, straining, overstretching, or elongation of the hyobranchial apparatus, including the branchiomandibularis muscle (tongue protractor), cricohyoideus muscle (tongue retractor), stylohyoideus muscle (retracting and raising the tongue), ceratoglossus muscle, hypoglossus muscle (lateral movements of the tongue), intermandibularis muscle, serpiohyoideus muscle, interceratobranchialis muscle, mesoglossus muscle, or genioglossus muscle
. (1,4,5) A multifocal muscular disease or a neurologic problem were considered less likely due to the normal movements of the tongue and normal deglutition once the bandage was placed.
Upper airway collapsibility may reflect the impaired function of upper airway dilator muscles such as the genioglossus muscle
. However, scientists are unsure to what extent this is true since results of various studies have been conflicting.
(1) This usually consists of mucosa, dense fibrous connective tissue, and occasionally, superior fibers of the genioglossus muscle
Although research is ongoing, studies have already shown considerable complexity within the genioglossus muscle
Contraction of the genioglossus muscle
may help to propel malignant cells through potential spaces within the intrinsic tongue muscles and into the lymphatic system.
Among the possible causes of upper airway obstruction are the posterior displacement of a normal-sized tongue secondary to micrognathia and/or retrognathia, the loss of support of the genioglossus muscle
, and negative pressure in the pharynx during swallowing and inspiration.