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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



pathological changes that precede the development of a malignant tumor.

The concept of “precancer” was first formulated with regard to skin cancer, which is the most accessible to clinical observation. Later, precancer was diagnosed in the lower lip, breasts, cervix of the uterus, and stomach. Research in experimental oncology has demonstrated that precancerous conditions differing in clinical manifestations represent the same basic pathological process with the same definite pattern.

There are three stages of precancer generally distinguished in Soviet oncology. In the stage of uneven diffuse hyperplasia, the tissue retains its normal structure, but the number of its structural elements, such as cells and fibers, increases. In the stage of focal proliferation, the total mass of multiplying cells contains areas, or foci, in which the cells divide with unusual rapidity. In the comparatively benign tumor stage the foci of multiplying cells steadily cease to resemble the original tissue and become increasingly isolated but do not exhibit a tendency toward invasive growth—that is, growth into and destruction of healthy tissue. The first stage is not yet precancer in the strict sense of the word. The second stage is the most characteristic stage of a precancer. The third stage is not essential, since the cancer can bypass it and continue developing. A precancer can regress or cease developing for a long time.


Shabad, L. M. Predrak v eksperimental’no-morfologicheskom aspekte. Moscow, 1967.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Selected Genodermatoses. Pediatr Clin N Amer 1978;25(2):263-84.
Genodermatoses; a clinical guide to genetic skin disorders, 2d ed.
"Genodermatoses have been and continue to be a diagnostic challenge for practitioners.
Patients were not included in the study if they had been pregnant, were breastfeeding, had any genodermatoses which may interfere with aging skin changes, showed premature aging, were using other concomitant treatments, had connective tissue disorders, were previously treated with oral retinoids in the six months prior to the study, used superficial chemical peels or microdermabrasion in the three months prior to the study, received medium or deep chemical peels or laser ablation within six months of the study, met the criteria for alcohol addiction, had infectious or inflammatory facial dermatoses, had photodermatosis, and did not need to avoid sun exposure.
It may occur alone or in association with other genodermatoses and diseases, including Bazex-Dupre-Christol syndrome (an X-linked dominant disease characterized by early onset of multiple basal cell carcinomas, congenital hypotrichosis, and follicular atrophoderma), and has been reported in association with myasthenia gravis, alopecia, systemic lupus erythematosus, and cystic fibrosis.
Sometimes the two will not occur together clinically, as in the case of the genodermatoses, where the marker may precede the malignancy by several years.
Onset of certain dermatological diseases genodermatoses which interfere with ageing skin, photosensitive genodermatoses, premature ageing genodermatoses, albinos, inherited disorders of DNA instability were excluded.
Genetics and Genodermatoses.In: Champion RH Burton JL Burns DA Breathnach SM editors.
The differential diagnosis of neonatal lupus syndrome includes annular urticaria, tinea corporis, seborrheic dermatitis, erythema annulare centrifugum, familial annular erythema, erythema multiforme, systemic lupus erythematosus, pityrosporum infection, and photosensitive genodermatoses. (1) These can be differentiated from neonatal lupus by several defining characteristics:
[7] Typically, basal cell carcinomas occur in the fourth decade of life and beyond, [8] although exceptions to this occur in particular in the scenario of specific genodermatoses or in patients with immunocompromised.
Genetics and genodermatoses. In: Champion RH, Burton JL, Burns DA, Breathnach SM, editors.
(30) described this rare genodermatoses and he proposed that it is familial, inherited as autosomal dominant trait with variable phenotypic penetrance, starts as a unilateral lesions at birth or in early childhood increases until puberty, after which it remains stationary or decreases.