genome

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genome:

see geneticsgenetics,
scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of the
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.

genome

the overall genetic constitution of an organism/species as constituted by the chromosomal makeup of every member (the term arises from a combination of the terms ‘gene’ and ‘chromosome’). See also GENETICS, HUMAN GENOME PROJECT.

Genome

 

a haploid chromosome set; the sum total of the genes localized in the individual set of chromosomes of a given organism. The term was introduced in 1920 by the German biologist H. Winkler. The genome is usually understood to mean the sum of the genes concentrated in the chromosomes, without taking into account the hereditary determinants connected with the structures of cytoplasm. In the gametes of diploid organisms, as well as in the cells of haploid organisms, there is one genome; in the somatic cells of diploid organisms there are two genomes. With an increase in ploidy of the cells, the number of genomes grows. In fertilization, the genomes of the paternal and maternal gametes unite. As a rule, genomes obtained from paternal and maternal gametes are homologous. Homology between all or some genomes exists in all but distant hybrids. Absolute homology of two genomes may be defined as the coinciding of the linear arrangement of the genes in every chromosome. This coinciding ensures the possibility of the normal conjugation of chromosomes in meiosis.

Changes in the number of chromosomes (for example, polyploidy or an increase or loss of individual chromosomes) are called genomic mutations. An organism in which one and the same genome is repeated several times is called au-topolyploid. An organism in which different genomes are combined is called allopolyploid. Wheats may serve as an example of the allopolyploids. The haploid number of chromosomes in hard wheat is 14, in soft wheat, 21; and in einkorn, seven. By hybridization and the study of the conjugation of chromosomes in meiosis, it was ascertained that in all wheats there is one common genome (genome A) made up of seven chromosomes. In hard and soft wheat there are two common genomes (genomes A, B), each having seven chromosomes. Finally, in soft wheat, there is still another special genome (genome D), also made up of seven chromosomes. Thus, the genomic formula for einkorn is AA and for hard wheat it is AABB. Soft wheat, which has arisen in the process of evolution by the crossing of three different wild cereals and by the doubling of the number of chromosomes in the hybrids, has the genomic formula AABBDD.

In the experiments of the Soviet geneticist G. D. Kar-pechenko, radish and cabbage genomes were combined for the first time in a hybrid organism. By means of corresponding crossings and cytological analysis, the origin of separate genomes can be established. For example, V. A. Rybin obtained (resynthesized) a cultivated plum by crossing the cherry plum and the sloe; thus it was established that the genome of a plum includes cherry plum and sloe genomes. Of great significance in understanding the structure and functioning of the genome have been the establishment of the structure of the molecules of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and of the mechanisms of their replication, and the establishment of the means of “tracing” and transmitting genetic information.

V. N. SOIFER and V. V. KHVOSTOVA

genome

[′jē‚nōm]
(genetics)
The genetic endowment of a species.
The haploid set of chromosomes.

genome

, genom
1. the full complement of genetic material within an organism
2. all the genes comprising a haploid set of chromosomes
References in periodicals archive ?
5 includes an improved variant identification workflow, based on a more efficient genome alignment strategy yielding better coverage of analyzed genome sequences and processing of a larger number of variants between the compared genomes within a shorter runtime (
The inclusion of the annotated genome sequences in the database will allow high confidence confirmation of in-vitro microbial pathogen detection.
Now that the genome sequence of one variety of tomato is known, it will also be easier and much less expensive for seed companies and plant breeders to sequence other varieties for research and development.
This new genome sequence represents a major breakthrough in genetics because it promises to advance basic research of maize and other grains, and help scientists and breeders improve maize crops, which are economically important and serve as globally important sources of food, fuel, and fiber.
It is certainly true that many of the secrets of an animal remain undecipherable even with a genome sequence in hand, but the often heard lament that genome sequences per se are merely a steppingstone could not be further from the truth.
The project's researchers created a browser, which makes it easier for users to view the genome sequence data and connect to detailed annotation pages for each sequence.
A map of human genome sequence variation containing 1,42 million single nucleotide polymorphisms.
Its complete genome sequence, published in 1996, indicated the presence of over 6,000 potential genes extending across more than 70 percent of the genome.
These two platforms, GRC researchers will be able to cross-validate consensus sequences to generate the highest possible genome sequence accuracy.
In a project led by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, an international team of scientists have revealed that the genome sequence provides insights into the evolutionary relationships between the great apes and may help us to understand the genetic basis of these traits.
Tomato genetics underlies the potential for improved taste every home gardener knows and every supermarket shopper desires and the genome sequence will help solve this and many other issues in tomato production and quality," he added.
Prof Hall said, "The genome sequence data of this reference variety, Chinese Spring wheat, will now allow us to probe differences between varieties with different characteristics.