genome

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genome:

see geneticsgenetics,
scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of the
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.

genome

the overall genetic constitution of an organism/species as constituted by the chromosomal makeup of every member (the term arises from a combination of the terms ‘gene’ and ‘chromosome’). See also GENETICS, HUMAN GENOME PROJECT.

Genome

 

a haploid chromosome set; the sum total of the genes localized in the individual set of chromosomes of a given organism. The term was introduced in 1920 by the German biologist H. Winkler. The genome is usually understood to mean the sum of the genes concentrated in the chromosomes, without taking into account the hereditary determinants connected with the structures of cytoplasm. In the gametes of diploid organisms, as well as in the cells of haploid organisms, there is one genome; in the somatic cells of diploid organisms there are two genomes. With an increase in ploidy of the cells, the number of genomes grows. In fertilization, the genomes of the paternal and maternal gametes unite. As a rule, genomes obtained from paternal and maternal gametes are homologous. Homology between all or some genomes exists in all but distant hybrids. Absolute homology of two genomes may be defined as the coinciding of the linear arrangement of the genes in every chromosome. This coinciding ensures the possibility of the normal conjugation of chromosomes in meiosis.

Changes in the number of chromosomes (for example, polyploidy or an increase or loss of individual chromosomes) are called genomic mutations. An organism in which one and the same genome is repeated several times is called au-topolyploid. An organism in which different genomes are combined is called allopolyploid. Wheats may serve as an example of the allopolyploids. The haploid number of chromosomes in hard wheat is 14, in soft wheat, 21; and in einkorn, seven. By hybridization and the study of the conjugation of chromosomes in meiosis, it was ascertained that in all wheats there is one common genome (genome A) made up of seven chromosomes. In hard and soft wheat there are two common genomes (genomes A, B), each having seven chromosomes. Finally, in soft wheat, there is still another special genome (genome D), also made up of seven chromosomes. Thus, the genomic formula for einkorn is AA and for hard wheat it is AABB. Soft wheat, which has arisen in the process of evolution by the crossing of three different wild cereals and by the doubling of the number of chromosomes in the hybrids, has the genomic formula AABBDD.

In the experiments of the Soviet geneticist G. D. Kar-pechenko, radish and cabbage genomes were combined for the first time in a hybrid organism. By means of corresponding crossings and cytological analysis, the origin of separate genomes can be established. For example, V. A. Rybin obtained (resynthesized) a cultivated plum by crossing the cherry plum and the sloe; thus it was established that the genome of a plum includes cherry plum and sloe genomes. Of great significance in understanding the structure and functioning of the genome have been the establishment of the structure of the molecules of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and of the mechanisms of their replication, and the establishment of the means of “tracing” and transmitting genetic information.

V. N. SOIFER and V. V. KHVOSTOVA

genome

[′jē‚nōm]
(genetics)
The genetic endowment of a species.
The haploid set of chromosomes.

genome

, genom
1. the full complement of genetic material within an organism
2. all the genes comprising a haploid set of chromosomes
References in periodicals archive ?
In a project led by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, an international team of scientists have revealed that the genome sequence provides insights into the evolutionary relationships between the great apes and may help us to understand the genetic basis of these traits.
In 2001, two competing projects, one run by the federal government and the other by a private company, announced the sequencing of the human genome. However, those sequences, or readouts of DNA'S letter order, were in essence only half finished.
Collins, M.D., Ph.D., Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute.
Genome sequences of chicken (low pathogenic avian influenza [LPAI] and highly pathogenic avian influenza [HPAI]) and human isolates from a 2004 outbreak of H7N3 avian influenza in Canada showed a novel insertion in the HA0 cleavage site of the human and HPAI isolate.
Understanding evolutionary changes is important, Ware adds, because familiarity with ancestral genomes allows scientists to look at the genetic makeup of current crops and make best guesses as to which genes are likely to perform the same functions.
M2 PRESSWIRE-August 7, 2019-: Digital Genome Market Growth Insight 2019, Global Analysis, Size, Share, Leading Players, Emerging Technology Trends, Merger, Acquisition, Opportunity, With Regional Outlook To 2027
Their approach identifies extensive genetic variation in the fruit fly genome that have previously escaped discovery.
For starters, because genomes multiply and spread with reproduction, modifying an entire population would require modifications to only a limited number of individuals, especially if the organism's lifecycle is short.
These reports mark the culmination of the 1000 Genomes Project, which found more than 99% of variants in the human genome that occur at a frequency of at least one percent in the populations studied.
The company has received national recognition and become a vanguard in fields such as personal genomics and genome research services.
Genome maps built with the Irys System expose the biologically and clinically significant order and orientation of functionally relevant components of complex genomes, including genes, promoters, regulatory elements.
The quest for the $1,000 genome sequence began in December 2001 at the National Human Genome Research Institute's scientific retreat.

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