genomic imprinting


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genomic imprinting

[jə¦nō·mik im‚print·iŋ]
(genetics)
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The maternal-specific inheritance pattern of Angelman syndrome is due to genomic imprinting of UBE3A in neurons of the central nervous system, a naturally occurring phenomenon in which the maternal UBE3Aallele is expressed and the paternal UBE3A is not.
The reader is referred to the 'parental conflict hypothesis' for more information on the evolution of genomic imprinting, and thoughts about why specific genes may have been selected for differential imprinting by the male and female lineages, respectively.
In mammals, because certain maternal or paternal genes are shut off during germline development by a mechanism called genomic imprinting, offspring that don't receive genetic material from both a mother and a father might experience developmental abnormalities or might not be viable.
We will: (1) synthesize the theories of inclusive fitness and multilevel selection to allow direct engagement with complex adaptive design at multiple levels of biological organization; (2) take a geometric approach to social adaptation to determine how complex, Multidimensional phenotypes evolve in the context of social conflicts; (3) develop a computational paradigm for group-level adaptation in which complexity may be quantified and tracked over evolutionary timescales; And (4) employ genomic imprinting as a tractable model of major transitions, To understand how conflicts of interest arise and how they resolve to maintain or disrupt the adaptive integrity of the organism, With applications to childhood cancers and growth, Fertility and neurological disorders.
The genomic imprinting represents a non-Mendelian heredity model and is a process of "marking" of some genes preferentially expressed from a single parental allele.
DNA methylation is one of the key processes that could affect individual development, genomic imprinting, sex chromosome inactivation and transposable element silencing (Zentner and Henikoff, 2014).
This year's review contains 19 articles on such aspects of neuroscience as beyond the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor: whether cannabidiol is the answer for disorders of motivation, neuronal mechanisms of visual categorizations: an abstract view on decision making, correlations and neuronal population information, face processing systems: from neurons to real-world social perception, and new perspectives on genomic imprinting: an essential and multifaceted mode of epigenetic control in the developing and adult brain.
Mammalian-specific genomic functions: Newly acquired traits generated by genomic imprinting and LTR retrotransposon-derived genes in mammals ...
BWS is a genomic imprinting disorder characterized by abdominal wall defects, macroglossia, pre- and postnatal overgrowth, neonatal hypoglycemia, visceromegaly, and increased risk of developing cancer in childhood, such as Wilms' cancer, hepatoblastoma, neuroblastoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma.
Lack of MTHFR activity due to presence of its polymorphic variants will reduce the availability of methyl group donors that are needed for methylalation of DNA (9) which may adversely affect the global genome methylation and also the genomic imprinting of paternal genes in spermatogenetic cells.
Genomic imprinting occurs when epigenetic marks are established in the germ line such that sperm or eggs carry information that transfers to the next generation.

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