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see geneticsgenetics,
scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of the
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the overall genetic constitution of an organism/species as constituted by the chromosomal makeup of every member (the term arises from a combination of the terms ‘gene’ and ‘chromosome’). See also GENETICS, HUMAN GENOME PROJECT.



a haploid chromosome set; the sum total of the genes localized in the individual set of chromosomes of a given organism. The term was introduced in 1920 by the German biologist H. Winkler. The genome is usually understood to mean the sum of the genes concentrated in the chromosomes, without taking into account the hereditary determinants connected with the structures of cytoplasm. In the gametes of diploid organisms, as well as in the cells of haploid organisms, there is one genome; in the somatic cells of diploid organisms there are two genomes. With an increase in ploidy of the cells, the number of genomes grows. In fertilization, the genomes of the paternal and maternal gametes unite. As a rule, genomes obtained from paternal and maternal gametes are homologous. Homology between all or some genomes exists in all but distant hybrids. Absolute homology of two genomes may be defined as the coinciding of the linear arrangement of the genes in every chromosome. This coinciding ensures the possibility of the normal conjugation of chromosomes in meiosis.

Changes in the number of chromosomes (for example, polyploidy or an increase or loss of individual chromosomes) are called genomic mutations. An organism in which one and the same genome is repeated several times is called au-topolyploid. An organism in which different genomes are combined is called allopolyploid. Wheats may serve as an example of the allopolyploids. The haploid number of chromosomes in hard wheat is 14, in soft wheat, 21; and in einkorn, seven. By hybridization and the study of the conjugation of chromosomes in meiosis, it was ascertained that in all wheats there is one common genome (genome A) made up of seven chromosomes. In hard and soft wheat there are two common genomes (genomes A, B), each having seven chromosomes. Finally, in soft wheat, there is still another special genome (genome D), also made up of seven chromosomes. Thus, the genomic formula for einkorn is AA and for hard wheat it is AABB. Soft wheat, which has arisen in the process of evolution by the crossing of three different wild cereals and by the doubling of the number of chromosomes in the hybrids, has the genomic formula AABBDD.

In the experiments of the Soviet geneticist G. D. Kar-pechenko, radish and cabbage genomes were combined for the first time in a hybrid organism. By means of corresponding crossings and cytological analysis, the origin of separate genomes can be established. For example, V. A. Rybin obtained (resynthesized) a cultivated plum by crossing the cherry plum and the sloe; thus it was established that the genome of a plum includes cherry plum and sloe genomes. Of great significance in understanding the structure and functioning of the genome have been the establishment of the structure of the molecules of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and of the mechanisms of their replication, and the establishment of the means of “tracing” and transmitting genetic information.



The genetic endowment of a species.
The haploid set of chromosomes.


, genom
1. the full complement of genetic material within an organism
2. all the genes comprising a haploid set of chromosomes
References in periodicals archive ?
The specific goal is to reduce sequencing costs by at least four orders of magnitude--$1000 serves as a useful target cost for a mammalian-sized genome because the availability of complete genomic sequences at that cost would revolutionize biological research and medicine.
Sandra Glucksmann, PhD, lead scientist for the Millennium team explained, "Having the genomic sequence is like having a book, with many, many filler pages many of which are meaningless.
coli O104 strain was rapidly created using AvidBiotics' antibacterial Purocin[TM] protein technology, making use of rapidly acquired, published, draft genomic sequence data as detailed in a new publication in PLoS ONE.
Syngenta is donating sequence information on nearly 18,000 individual genes expressed at key stages in the life-cycle of Phytophthora infestans as well as most of its genomic sequence to GenBank, a publicly available DNA database.
Complete genomic sequence of human coronavirus OC43: molecular clock analysis suggests a relatively recent zoonotic coronavirus transmission event.
Edico Genome recently announced the availability of DRAGEN, a custom coprocessor platform that uses field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to provide hardware-accelerated analysis of genomic sequence data.
Sale and delivery of a set of genomic sequence analysis with transport, installation and commissioning in the space provided at the purchaser as part of building equipment cent i.
Advances in genomic sequence analysis and pattern discovery.
Evry, France) has patented the genomic sequence of the FLAP gene.
It's a two-step procedure that combines genomic sequence analysis and isotope-guided fractionation--the process of isolating compounds.
This collection of nine articles for professionals and other advanced readers covers the most recent techniques in what has become ongoing and mutual advancement in computational genomics, including the process of identifying functional elements through conservation in comparative genomics, the process of computational analysis and paleogenomics of interspersed repeats in eukaryotes, eukaryotic transcriptional regulation in signals and interactions as well as modules, sequence alignment, computational challenges in microarray analysis, computational analysis of HIV molecular sequences, biological databases, the roles of clusters and grids in distributed computational biology, and a case study in genomic sequence analysis for constrained heaviest segments.
We developed a system for rapid determination of viral RNA sequences whereby genomic sequence is obtained from cultured virus isolates without subcloning into plasmid vectors.