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see geneticsgenetics,
scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of the
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


the overall genetic constitution of an organism/species as constituted by the chromosomal makeup of every member (the term arises from a combination of the terms ‘gene’ and ‘chromosome’). See also GENETICS, HUMAN GENOME PROJECT.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a haploid chromosome set; the sum total of the genes localized in the individual set of chromosomes of a given organism. The term was introduced in 1920 by the German biologist H. Winkler. The genome is usually understood to mean the sum of the genes concentrated in the chromosomes, without taking into account the hereditary determinants connected with the structures of cytoplasm. In the gametes of diploid organisms, as well as in the cells of haploid organisms, there is one genome; in the somatic cells of diploid organisms there are two genomes. With an increase in ploidy of the cells, the number of genomes grows. In fertilization, the genomes of the paternal and maternal gametes unite. As a rule, genomes obtained from paternal and maternal gametes are homologous. Homology between all or some genomes exists in all but distant hybrids. Absolute homology of two genomes may be defined as the coinciding of the linear arrangement of the genes in every chromosome. This coinciding ensures the possibility of the normal conjugation of chromosomes in meiosis.

Changes in the number of chromosomes (for example, polyploidy or an increase or loss of individual chromosomes) are called genomic mutations. An organism in which one and the same genome is repeated several times is called au-topolyploid. An organism in which different genomes are combined is called allopolyploid. Wheats may serve as an example of the allopolyploids. The haploid number of chromosomes in hard wheat is 14, in soft wheat, 21; and in einkorn, seven. By hybridization and the study of the conjugation of chromosomes in meiosis, it was ascertained that in all wheats there is one common genome (genome A) made up of seven chromosomes. In hard and soft wheat there are two common genomes (genomes A, B), each having seven chromosomes. Finally, in soft wheat, there is still another special genome (genome D), also made up of seven chromosomes. Thus, the genomic formula for einkorn is AA and for hard wheat it is AABB. Soft wheat, which has arisen in the process of evolution by the crossing of three different wild cereals and by the doubling of the number of chromosomes in the hybrids, has the genomic formula AABBDD.

In the experiments of the Soviet geneticist G. D. Kar-pechenko, radish and cabbage genomes were combined for the first time in a hybrid organism. By means of corresponding crossings and cytological analysis, the origin of separate genomes can be established. For example, V. A. Rybin obtained (resynthesized) a cultivated plum by crossing the cherry plum and the sloe; thus it was established that the genome of a plum includes cherry plum and sloe genomes. Of great significance in understanding the structure and functioning of the genome have been the establishment of the structure of the molecules of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and of the mechanisms of their replication, and the establishment of the means of “tracing” and transmitting genetic information.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The genetic endowment of a species.
The haploid set of chromosomes.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


, genom
1. the full complement of genetic material within an organism
2. all the genes comprising a haploid set of chromosomes
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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semilaevis were searched from the genomic library, and other species genomic sequences of DNAH9 were obtained from Ensemble ( and NBCI (Coelacanth: ENSLACG00000003371; Danio rerio: ENSDARG00000103383; Fugu rubripes: ENSTRUG00000000064; Lampetra japonica: ENSPMAG00000005143; Maylandia zebra: NW_004532118.1; and Xiphophorus maculatus: NW_005372467.1).
(10) compared the genomic sequences of 14 SARS-CoV isolates and suggested that a haplotype comprising four nucleotide positions, namely, 9404, 17564, 22222, and 27827 [GenBank accession no.
If genomic sequences are "products of nature," how can they meet the three criteria of patentable material--namely, that it be novel and not obvious, useful, and have specific direction enabling others to use it.
Consequently, it is not surprising that genes encoding these enzymes have not been found in the completed genomic sequences of organisms that employ one or both of the indirect pathways.
Samtools 1.0 will be a useful tool in this project, as it allows scientists to read and write data in the new CRAM format, which was recently adopted by GA4GH, as well as in the current SAM and BAM file formats for genomic sequence data.
"The genomic sequence data has definitely expanded our understanding of the biological control capacity of this organism," Loper says.
A total of 371 genes have been scanned, and on average, approximately 53% of the genomic sequence for each gene has been examined for variation across the 90 PDR samples.
NISC's program focuses on generating and analyzing genomic sequence from multiple vertebrate species, with the resulting data already advancing the understanding of genome structure, function and evolution.
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Washington, June 7 ( ANI ): An international consortium, comprised of seven universities and institutes, has completed the first pear genomic sequence in the world.
We developed a system for rapid determination of viral RNA sequences whereby genomic sequence is obtained from cultured virus isolates without subcloning into plasmid vectors.

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