genome

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genome:

see geneticsgenetics,
scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of the
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.

genome

the overall genetic constitution of an organism/species as constituted by the chromosomal makeup of every member (the term arises from a combination of the terms ‘gene’ and ‘chromosome’). See also GENETICS, HUMAN GENOME PROJECT.

Genome

 

a haploid chromosome set; the sum total of the genes localized in the individual set of chromosomes of a given organism. The term was introduced in 1920 by the German biologist H. Winkler. The genome is usually understood to mean the sum of the genes concentrated in the chromosomes, without taking into account the hereditary determinants connected with the structures of cytoplasm. In the gametes of diploid organisms, as well as in the cells of haploid organisms, there is one genome; in the somatic cells of diploid organisms there are two genomes. With an increase in ploidy of the cells, the number of genomes grows. In fertilization, the genomes of the paternal and maternal gametes unite. As a rule, genomes obtained from paternal and maternal gametes are homologous. Homology between all or some genomes exists in all but distant hybrids. Absolute homology of two genomes may be defined as the coinciding of the linear arrangement of the genes in every chromosome. This coinciding ensures the possibility of the normal conjugation of chromosomes in meiosis.

Changes in the number of chromosomes (for example, polyploidy or an increase or loss of individual chromosomes) are called genomic mutations. An organism in which one and the same genome is repeated several times is called au-topolyploid. An organism in which different genomes are combined is called allopolyploid. Wheats may serve as an example of the allopolyploids. The haploid number of chromosomes in hard wheat is 14, in soft wheat, 21; and in einkorn, seven. By hybridization and the study of the conjugation of chromosomes in meiosis, it was ascertained that in all wheats there is one common genome (genome A) made up of seven chromosomes. In hard and soft wheat there are two common genomes (genomes A, B), each having seven chromosomes. Finally, in soft wheat, there is still another special genome (genome D), also made up of seven chromosomes. Thus, the genomic formula for einkorn is AA and for hard wheat it is AABB. Soft wheat, which has arisen in the process of evolution by the crossing of three different wild cereals and by the doubling of the number of chromosomes in the hybrids, has the genomic formula AABBDD.

In the experiments of the Soviet geneticist G. D. Kar-pechenko, radish and cabbage genomes were combined for the first time in a hybrid organism. By means of corresponding crossings and cytological analysis, the origin of separate genomes can be established. For example, V. A. Rybin obtained (resynthesized) a cultivated plum by crossing the cherry plum and the sloe; thus it was established that the genome of a plum includes cherry plum and sloe genomes. Of great significance in understanding the structure and functioning of the genome have been the establishment of the structure of the molecules of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and of the mechanisms of their replication, and the establishment of the means of “tracing” and transmitting genetic information.

V. N. SOIFER and V. V. KHVOSTOVA

genome

[′jē‚nōm]
(genetics)
The genetic endowment of a species.
The haploid set of chromosomes.

genome

, genom
1. the full complement of genetic material within an organism
2. all the genes comprising a haploid set of chromosomes
References in periodicals archive ?
To cope with the complexities of repetitive DNA elements and to assemble the thousand-base reads in the correct long-range order across the genome, current genomic sequencing methods involve a variety of additional strategies, such as the sequencing of both ends of cloned DNA fragments, use of libraries of cloned fragments of different lengths, incorporation of map information, achievement of substantial redundancy (multiple reads of each nucleotide from overlapping fragments) and application of sophisticated assembly algorithms to align and filter the read information.
Department of Health and Human Services' Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988 for its genomic sequencing laboratory in Woburn, Massachusetts and has also achieved Massachusetts State Licensing, enabling the company to begin processing clinical samples from most states.
When Avere heard what the CDC required for its datacenter strategy and to support the next generation of genomic sequencing platforms, we knew that Avere FXT Edge filers would be the ideal fit, said Ron Bianchini, president and CEO, Avere Systems.
amp; PROVO, Utah -- Penguin Computing, a leading provider of HPC cluster solutions and Adaptive Computing, managers of the world's largest supercomputing systems as experts in HPC workload management, announced today that The Jackson Laboratory has chosen Scyld ClusterWare and Moab HPC Suite to process its genomic sequencing data.
Using advances in genomic sequencing, the human microbiome, proteomics, informatics, computing, and cell therapy technologies, HLI is building the world's most comprehensive database of human genotypes and phenotypes as a basis for a variety of commercialization opportunities to help solve aging related disease and human biological decline.
The San Diego-based biotech will secure Au78m for the use of its genomic sequencing services and will, in turn, make an investment of around Au162m into the work in England over four years, generating genome sequencing knowledge and employment in a partnership with Genomics England.
The latter measurement was made possible with the advent of whole genomic sequencing and the subsequent development of microarrays capable of measuring thousands of transcripts at once and is best described as transcript profiling, although it has often been referred to as genomics or transcriptomics.
Partial genomic sequencing confirmed these observations.
The first volume deals with molecular genetics, genomic organization and evolution, as well as genomes of model organisms, while the second goes on to treat genomic sequencing, genetic engineering and gene medicine and disease.
Contract award: UCAM 011/13 Provision of Genomic Sequencing Services, including but not limited to Whole Genome Sequencing, Exome Sequencing, Transcriptome.
However, the reliance on genomic sequencing for virus identification has resulted in an apparent quandary: whether to use molecular or other methods for virus identification.