George Cayley

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cayley, George


Born Dec. 27, 1773, in Scarborough, Yorkshire, England; died Dec. 15, 1857, in Brompton Hall, Yorkshire. English scientist and inventor.

From 1809 to 1811, Cayley published descriptions of the principles of flight for a glider and an airplane, as well as the results of his aerodynamic research on models and devices. Subsequent works proposed methods for providing flight stability. Cayley explained the role of the tail group and the importance of minimizing weight and load. From 1849 to 1853, he built two gliders and made a manned flight with one of them. Cayley developed a wheel with wire spokes (the prototype of the bicycle wheel) and proposed several types of internal combustion engines (1805). He patented a crawler track for transport machines in 1825. Cayley was also concerned with research in such areas as scientific education, acoustics, ballistics, optics, electricity, and railroad equipment.


Popov, V. A. Osnovy aviatsionnoi tekhniki. Moscow, 1947.
Pritchard, J. L. Sir George Cayley. London, 1961.
Gibbs-Smith, C. H. Sir George Cayley’s Aeronautics 1796–1855. London, 1962.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
Henson and Sir George Cayley - had much weakened the public interest in the subject of aerial navigation.
Henson's scheme, and of Sir George Cayley's, to the interruption of surface in the independent vanes.
"Like Sir George Cayley's balloon, his own was an ellipsoid.
George Cayley was an English engineer who created the first seat belt to keep pilots inside gliders during the 19th century.
Dave Shephard's and Emily Sohn's "Heroes of Science" (9781438012001) includes scientific advances by Nicolaus Copernicus, Charles Darwin, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and more; Dan Green's, Pete Katz's, and Sarah Skeate's "Heroes of Discovery" (9781438011998) includes discoveries by Johannes Gutenberg, Ada Lovelace, Thomas Edison, Nikola Tesla, Tim Berners-Lee, and more; Jade Sarson's and Dan Green's "Heroes of Flight" (9781438011981) tells of pioneer pilots George Cayley, the Wright Brothers, Amelia Earhart, Igor Sikorsky, Chuck Yeager, and more; and Charli Vince's and Emily Sohn's "Heroes of Space" (9781438012018) explores the achievements of scientists and astronauts Henrietta Swan Leavitt, Edwin Hubble, Robert Goddard, Yuri Gagarin, Neil Armstrong, and more.
Replica of Sir George Cayley's Glider The 1773-1857 engineer, inventor, aviator from Scarborough made the first heavier-than-air flight in one of his flying machines at Brompton Vale near his home town.
Seat belts were invented by English engineer George Cayley in the mid-19th century, though Edward J Claghorn, of New York, was granted the first patent on February 10, 1885.
The pub, named after the first ever flying machine, invented by Sir George Cayley, only re-opened in April.
Later in 1754 Mikhail Lomonosov has designed an axial impeller (figure 2.4) and in 1783 Bienvenue Launoy and a counter-model propeller (figure 2.5), based on the Chinese idea [4, 22], George Cayley designed a carriage convertaplane [1] which remained at the stage of idea due to the propulsion systems gauge which at that time were only available for steam locomotives (Figure 2.6).
(Examples: Sir George Cayley invented a glider in 1804.
Other scientists discussed in the book include Alfred Wegener and his theory of continental drift, Ignaz Semmelweis and the idea that hand washing would stop the spread of germs, Charles Darwin's theories on the origin of the species, George Cayley's fantastical flying machines, Nikola Tesla's obsession with electricity and Charles Babbage's early computer designs.
The building, at South Lane, is named Cayley House, after Sir George Cayley.