George Eliot


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.

Eliot, George,

pseud. of

Mary Ann or Marian Evans,

1819–80, English novelist, b. Arbury, Warwickshire. One of the great English novelists, she was reared in a strict atmosphere of evangelical Protestantism but eventually rebelled and renounced organized religion totally. Her early schooling was supplemented by assiduous reading, and the study of languages led to her first literary work, Life of Jesus (1846), a translation from the German of D. F. StraussStrauss, David Friedrich
, 1808–74, German theologian and philosopher. In Berlin he studied (1831–32) Hegelian philosophy. As tutor at Tübingen he lectured on Hegel, modern philosophy, and Plato. His Das Leben Jesu (2 vol.
..... Click the link for more information.
. After her father's death she became subeditor (1851) of the Westminster Review, contributed articles, and came to know many of the literary people of the day. In 1854 she began a long and happy union with G. H. LewesLewes, George Henry
, 1817–78, English critic and author. As editor of the Leader (1850–54) and of the Fortnightly Review (1865–66), Lewes distinguished himself as a critic.
..... Click the link for more information.
, which she regarded as marriage, though it involved social ostracism and could have no legal sanction because Lewes's estranged wife was living. Throughout his life Lewes encouraged Evans in her literary career; indeed, it is possible that without him Evans, subject to periods of depression and in constant need of reassurance, would not have written a word.

In 1856, Mary Ann began Scenes of Clerical Life, a series of realistic sketches first appearing in Blackwood's Magazine under the pseudonym Lewes chose for her, George Eliot. Although not a popular success, the work was well received by literary critics, particularly Dickens and Thackeray. Three novels of provincial life followed—Adam Bede (1859), The Mill on the Floss (1860), and Silas Marner (1861). She visited Italy in 1860 and again in 1861 before she brought out in the Cornhill Magazine (1862–63) her historical romance Romola, a story of SavonarolaSavonarola, Girolamo
, 1452–98, Italian religious reformer, b. Ferrara. He joined (1475) the Dominicans. In 1481 he went to San Marco, the Dominican house at Florence, where he became popular for his eloquent sermons, in which he attacked the vice and worldliness of the
..... Click the link for more information.
. Felix Holt (1866), a political novel, was followed by The Spanish Gypsy (1868), a dramatic poem. Middlemarch (1871–72), a portrait of life in a provincial town, is considered her masterpiece. She wrote one more novel, Daniel Deronda (1876); the satirical Impressions of Theophrastus Such (1879); and verse, which was never popular and is now seldom read. Lewes died in 1878, and in 1880 she married a close friend of both Lewes and herself, John W. Cross, who later edited George Eliot's Life as Related in Her Letters and Journals (3 vol., 1885–86). Writing about life in small rural towns, George Eliot was primarily concerned with the responsibility that people assume for their lives and with the moral choices they must inevitably make. Although highly serious, her novels are marked by compassion and a subtle humor.

Bibliography

See her letters (ed. by G. S. Haight, 7 vol., 1954–56); her collected essays (ed. by T. Pinney, 1964); biographies by L. and E. Hanson (1952), G. S. Haight (1968), J. Uglow (1987), F. R. Karl (1995), R. Ashton (1997), and K. Hughes (1999); studies by E. S. Haldane (1927), J. Thale (1959), B. Hardy (1967), D. Carroll, ed. (1971), T. S. Pearce (1973), and G. Beer (1983).

Eliot, George

 

(real name, Mary Ann Evans). Born Nov. 22, 1819, on the Arbury estate, Warwickshire; died Dec. 22, 1880, in London. English writer.

Under the influence of various schools of philosophy, especially the positivism of A. Comte and H. Spencer, Eliot adopted the idea of the gradual evolution of society and the harmony of the classes. In the collection of stories Scenes of Clerical Life (vols. 1–2, 1858), which consists of “Amos Barton” (Russian translation, 1860), “Mr. Gilfil’s Love Story” (Russian translation, 1859), and “Janet’s Repentance” (Russian translation, 1860), she dealt with the social and moral conflicts in a village in the English countryside. Democratic sympathies were also manifested in the novel Adam Bede (vols. 1–3, 1859; Russian translation, 1859).

Although in some respects Eliot’s works exhibit a tendency toward naturalism, in the novel The Mill on the Floss (vols. 1–3, 1860; Russian translation, 1860) she presented a typical picture of the life of the provincial petite bourgeoisie. In the novel Silas Marner (1861; Russian translation, 1959) she contrasted altruism to the egoistic morality of the wealthy. Eliot’s novels, including Felix Holt the Radical (vols. 1–3, 1866; Russian translation, 1867) and Middtemarch (vols. 1–4, 1871–72; Russian translation, 1873), were popular in Russia and were highly regarded by N. G. Chernyshevskii, M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin, I. S. Turgenev, and L. N. Tolstoy.

WORKS

The Complete Works, vols. 1–10. London-New York, 1908.
The George Eliot Letters, vols. 1–7. New Haven-London, 1954–55.
In Russian translation:
Mel’nitsa na Flosse. Moscow-Leningrad, 1963.

REFERENCES

Istoriia angliiskoi literatury, vol. 2, fasc. 2. Moscow, 1955.
Ivasheva, V. V. Angliiskii realisticheskii roman XIX v. v ego sovremennom zvuchanii. Moscow, 1974.
Allen, W. George Eliot. London [1965]
George Eliot: The Critical Heritage. London [1971].

A. A. BEL’SKII

References in periodicals archive ?
"George Eliot is regarded as one of the world's greatest novelist and what a better way than hosting a free family event to celebrate the bicentenary of the birth of Mary Ann Evans."
Members of the George Eliot Fellowship have a series of special events planned to mark this occasion and this included planting a bicentenary anniversary tree in the George Eliot Memorial gardens later in the year.
with a keen interest in 'guimp' and artificial protrusions of drapery." In Felix Holt, the Radical, which Rosemary Ashton, author of George Eliot: A Life, calls a "somber piece of secular preaching," the hero gives an address to the working men, lecturing the new voters on their "heavy responsibility" the sanctity of work done well, the "dependence of men on each other" and, in Ashton's words, "the organic, slow growing nature of society and culture."
If Chapter 5 were the main feature of a study devoted to the motif of child murder in George Eliot's work, then the general structure of the book would suffice, as the preceding chapters properly set the stage for it.
Paris writes that George Eliot "shared with most nineteenth-century novelists the illusion that suffering and frustration can make you into a noble person ..." but she does not see that "the frustrations experienced by her protagonists have damaged them psychologically." Subsequently Pads perceives that "one of the most serious difficulties of George Eliot's philosophy is her emphasis on living for others as the means by which we give value to our lives." His reexamination of his readings in the characters and their behavior in Middlemarch and Daniel Deronda highlight George Eliot's "deficiencies" (5).
The Paradox of Self-Love: Christian Elements in George Eliot's Treatment of Egoism.
The recently-published George Eliot (Pitkin, pounds 3.50), a superbly produced Pitkin Guide offering an interesting insight into the novelist's life and works, is written by Kathleen Adams.
But the letters reveal much more than the intellectual and the man of business who nourished George Eliot's genius.
George Eliot's and Lewes's journals and letters, too, yield information about books bought and borrowed both in London and on two trips to Florence undertaken in May-June 1860 (when Lewes first suggested the idea of a historical romance on the life and times of Savonarola) and April-May 1861.
Social Figures: George Eliot, Social History, and Literary Representation.
In what is the year of writer George Eliot's bicentenary, the wall will not only feature her image but also original quotes from the town's legendary film director ken Loach celebrating George Eliot's life.
It then goes over the road to look at the George Eliot family graves before going by coach to Arbury Hall for a full tour of the hall and a chance to look at the gardens.