Georges Politzer


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Politzer, Georges

 

Born May 3, 1903, in Nagyvárad, Hungary (now Oradea in the Socialist Republic of Rumania); died May 23, 1942. French Marxist philosopher. Member of the Central Committee of the French Communist Party.

In the 1930’s Politzer helped found the Workers’ University in Paris. From the beginning of the fascist German occupation of France (1940) he was in the underground. A participant in the Resistance Movement, he was arrested by the Vichy authorities in 1942, turned over to the occupiers, and executed.

Politzer analyzed issues in philosophy (Basic Issues in Modern Philosophy, 1938), political economy, and other disciplines from a dialectical-materialist standpoint. He published a critique of Bergsonian irrationalism in 1929 and also argued against Freudi-anism. He sought to construct a concrete psychology, the subject of which was to be man’s real life, or “life drama,” rather than the abstract, artificial construct of inner psychic life posited by the classical introspective psychology of W. Wundt. Concrete psychology, according to Politzer, should focus attention on the reality-oriented thoughts and activity-oriented aspect of the individual’s psychic life.

WORKS

Critique des fondements de la psychologie, part 1. Paris, 1928.
Ecrits, vols. 1–2. Paris, 1969.
In Russian translation:
In the collection Frantsuzskie kommunisty v bor’be za progressimuiu ideologiiu. Moscow, 1953.

REFERENCES

Antsyferova, L. I. “Pamiati Zh. Politisera.” Voprosy psikhologii, 1962, no. 3.
Chomarat, G. “G. Politzer aujourd’hui.” La Pensée, 1961, no. 98.
References in periodicals archive ?
En la Universidad de San Marcos, en Lima, donde me forme, Francia era la fuente principal de las ideas, los valores y principios que discutiamos, rechazabamos o haciamos nuestros y, por ejemplo, el marxismo que estudiabamos llegaba a nosotros pasado por las manos de intelectuales franceses, como Georges Politzer, cuyo manual de introduccion al pensamiento marxista --Cursos de filosofia--era como la Biblia para los miembros del clandestino "Grupo Cahuide"--en el que milite un ano--, nombre con el que trataba de reconstruirse el Partido Comunista Peruano, duramente reprimido por la dictadura militar del general Manuel A.
En su primer numero, Georges Politzer habia publicado "La fin de la psychanalyse" (Politzer 1939), una critica teorica e ideologica de Freud que iba a quedar como la referencia mayor para todos los que intervengan en la nueva situacion.
Ja o pensador marxista Georges Politzer morreu antes de concluir seu projeto de critica das tres principais escolas psicologicas e da reconstrucao da psicologia, concluindo apenas o volume de critica da psicanalise (Politzer, 2004).
Pensamos que seu "diagnostico" tinha razao de ser; prova disso e que Vigotski nao estava sozinho em seu argumento, tendo seguido o caminho de alguns outros pensadores--da psicologia e fora dela, a exemplo de Georges Politzer (2004) e Karl Buhler (1927).
Pucheu, claimed Aragon, had likewise been deeply involved in the inhumane treatment and torture of the Communist philosopher and Resistant Georges Politzer by the Vichy police, prior to his execution by the Germans in May 1942:
Pucheu, alors ministre de l'Interieur de Vichy, qui s'etait specialement derange pour cela, que sous pretexte de tirer de lui on ne sait quelles denonciations, on ne sait quels aveux, qui ne purent etre obtenus, Georges Politzer fut mis a nu et sauvagement battu de verges, en particulier et avec insistance sur les parties sexuelles.
That criticism of Petain was all the more forceful since in Aragon's text it was stressed, on the same page, that Georges Politzer, tortured by Vichy agents and shot by the Germans, had, in the years before the war, constantly fought against those who 'cachaient derriere leur hostilite a ce philosophe [i.
La philosophie des fondateurs -- dans la pensee des martyrs de la Resistance Jacques Solomon, Jacques Decour et Georges Politzer -- fut celle d'une maison d'edition non pas au service d'un parti politique ou de la patrie mais de la litterature libre.