Le Vine (1964), Welch (1966), Chem-Langhee (1973), Kofele-Kale (1980), Chem-Langhee and Njeuma (1980), Njeuma (1992), Amaazee (1995) and others attribute the birth of the Pan-Kamerun Movement either to the British neglect of the socioeconomic development of the Southern Cameroons and the resultant Igbophobia by the victim population or to the 'Kamerun Idea', the nostalgia about German Kamerun
. Where French Cameroon immigrants are mentioned, the researchers limit themselves to the role played by these immigrants in the reunification process.
It does not appear to be exogenous for Yaji had a brief encounter with the German and French colonial rulers and equally brief and chequered relations with the British through whose hands Madagali passed, having been successively a part of German Kamerun
(1884-1916), French Cameroun (1916-1922) and British Cameroons (1922-1961).