Germanisms

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Germanisms

 

words and expressions in Russian that were borrowed from German. Before the reign of Peter I the Great, such words as stul, “chair,” and shliapa, “hat” (16th century), and iarmarka, “fair,” and rotmistr, “cavalry captain” (17th century), had been adopted into Russian. In the first half of the 18th century there were numerous direct borrowings from German—administrative terms such as rang (rank), shtraf (fine), kantsler (chancellor), and bukhgalter (bookkeeper), and military terms such as iunker (Junker), lager’ (camp), and gauptvakhta (guardhouse), as well as terms for the arts and professions. In the second half of the 18th century, Russian assimilated various syntactical and word-formation caiques—for example, vygliadet’ from the German aussehen (to look or appear). In the mid-19th century there was an influx of political and philosophical terms, particularly in the form of caiques, such as mirovozzrenie (from Weltanschauung, “world view”) and samoopredelenie (from Selbstbestimmung, “self-determination”).

REFERENCES

Bogoroditskii, V. A. Obshchii kurs russkoi grammatiki, 5th ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935. Chapter 17.
Vinogradov, V. V. Ocherki po istorii russkogo literaturnogo iazyka XVII-XIX vv., 2nd ed. Moscow, 1938.
Bulakhovskii, L. A. Kurs russkogo literaturnogo iazyka, vol. 2, 4th ed. Kiev, 1953.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Germanism" contributes to realistic characterization of an American frontiersman and his employer while it foreshadows M'Kewn's eventual sensational death.
So, even if Hitlerism, in its pure "germanism," might retain too much personality, of a second-rate order, nevertheless Hitlerism seems preferable to Communism, which would have none at all, if it had its way.
In Germany in February 1879, Wilhelm Marr's pamphlet, The Victory of Judaism Over Germanism, became 'the first anti-semitic best-seller' [76] running to twelve editions in that year.
Thus bunker is a germanism when used in the political field and an anglicism in golf terminology; kindergarten is a germanism also handed down as an anglicism in the form kindergarden; handball, now known through its calque balonmano, is regarded by many as an anglicism, although originally it seems to come from German Handball (Lorenzo 1996), and the same occurs with rimmel 'mascara', included as an anglicism in most dictionaries but which in actual fact is a German eponym derived from the 19th-century cosmetologist Eugene Rimmel.
For example, in "Playful `Germanism' in `The Fall of the House of Usher': The Storyteller's Art," Benjamin Franklin Fisher argues that Poe's text embodies the influence of gothicism and Germanism on the literature of the day by incorporating numerous standard gothic motifs which it then parodies.(11) Because Poe's purpose is parodic, Fisher believes that an interpretive distance is maintained between the gullible narrator and the more sensible reader; while the narrator and Roderick Usher are depicted as readers of gothic run amuck, the reader of "The Fall of the House of Usher" is presumed safe from such confusion.
The translation seems serviceable, if somewhat colloquial but the odd Germanism sometimes creeps in see, for example, 5, 102, and 154.
Although the arguments they advanced against industry, technology, and the applied sciences in many respects were similar to those put forward in Europe, the spirit in which they discussed the Southern nation and its "separate destiny" rarely if ever resembled the "bellicose Germanism" so characteristic of many of the German agrarians.
21, 60, 80, 110; Eskhult uses the Germanism "coincident case," while some German writers now use such Anglicisms as "Performative Ausserung") and the ingressive character of prefixing forms of stative roots (e.g., pp.
In his preface Poe replied to the charge made frequently, that his work was permeated with "Germanism and gloom." He said: "If in many of my productions terror has been the basis, I maintain that terror is not of Germany but of the soul." The volumes were rather favorably received but sold slowly, and Poe received no encouragement when he proposed a second enlarged edition.
In the late 1800s, a German writer and political agitator named Wilhelm Marr published a pamphlet called "The Way to Victory of Judaism over Germanism." The idea was that Jews and Germans were locked in perpetual conflict, which could only end, Marr worried, with one groups victory over the other.
One who has completely forgotten Christianity truly hears it here as Gospel." By 1878, however, as befit his status as Antichrist-in-training, he felt obliged to revise his judgment: "In Bach there is too much crude Christianity, crude Germanism, crude scholasticism....
Epp, "An Analysis of Germanism and National Socialism in the Immigrant Newspapers of a Canadian Minority Group, the Mennonites, in the 1930s" (Ph.D.