Germanisms


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Germanisms

 

words and expressions in Russian that were borrowed from German. Before the reign of Peter I the Great, such words as stul, “chair,” and shliapa, “hat” (16th century), and iarmarka, “fair,” and rotmistr, “cavalry captain” (17th century), had been adopted into Russian. In the first half of the 18th century there were numerous direct borrowings from German—administrative terms such as rang (rank), shtraf (fine), kantsler (chancellor), and bukhgalter (bookkeeper), and military terms such as iunker (Junker), lager’ (camp), and gauptvakhta (guardhouse), as well as terms for the arts and professions. In the second half of the 18th century, Russian assimilated various syntactical and word-formation caiques—for example, vygliadet’ from the German aussehen (to look or appear). In the mid-19th century there was an influx of political and philosophical terms, particularly in the form of caiques, such as mirovozzrenie (from Weltanschauung, “world view”) and samoopredelenie (from Selbstbestimmung, “self-determination”).

REFERENCES

Bogoroditskii, V. A. Obshchii kurs russkoi grammatiki, 5th ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935. Chapter 17.
Vinogradov, V. V. Ocherki po istorii russkogo literaturnogo iazyka XVII-XIX vv., 2nd ed. Moscow, 1938.
Bulakhovskii, L. A. Kurs russkogo literaturnogo iazyka, vol. 2, 4th ed. Kiev, 1953.
References in periodicals archive ?
He argued that much of what Weinreich considers Germanisms are merely based on "feelings" rather than dialectical research.
She does not, however, define the standard-language status of the Germanisms included, is inconsistent in noting the origin of words where German served as mediator, and excludes German words whose transfer was mediated by the Hungarian language.
Whilst loans into British English can largely be categorized as 'cultural borrowing' from a distance and primarily through the written word, the bulk of Germanisms in American English result from 'intimate borrowing' through the speech of German-speaking immigrants.
The full range of urban slang is on display, with its many Germanisms, Yiddishisms, and even Gypsy elements, though it is invariably used to reveal character and is never excessive or parodistic.
Bringing the scholarship up to date for the past 12 years is one of the outstanding achievements of this work, and the fine tuning and editing of Jeremy Noakes has saved the English reader from many germanisms such as prolix, convoluted sentences and ponderous arguments, although a few have slipped through the screen.